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American History 8th

American History Final Exam Flashcards


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Horace Mann
the leader of educational reform
Populist Party
U.S. political party formed in 1892 representing mainly farmers, favoring free coinage of silver and government control of railroads and other monopolies
Describe ways in which enslaved African Americans held on to their African customs.
Continued to practice African music and dance; passed traditional folk stories and proverbs onto their children; wrapped African colored cloths around their heads; often followed religious beliefs and practice of their African ancestors as well, although many accepted Christianity
Red Badge of Courage and Uncle Tom's Cabin
a person who favors those born in his country and is opposed to immigrants
Identify the sources which the South and North relied upon for their livelihood?
Industry vs. Agriculture
Southern owner of a small farm who did not have slaves
What was the Dawes Act?
aimed to eliminate what Americans regarded as the two weaknesses of Native American life
What was Stephen Douglas's solution to the slavery issue in the Kansas and Nebraska territories?
proposed letting the settlers in each territory to vote on whether to allow slavery=popular sovereignty, and to abandon the Missouri Compromise
How was Jefferson Davis transported to prison?
horse drivin ambulance
What actions by the US government and white settlers brought an end to the traditional Native American way of life?
Reservation Policy, whites moved onto Indian Land, US army sold land, slaughtered the buffalo, and Dawes Act
What was the first American medical school for women?
Bostom Female Medical School
What problems led farmers to organize granges and alliances?
charged farmers more to ship crops than they charged manufacturers, disliked bankers
Elizabeth Blackwell
the first woman to receive a medical degree in the United States or Europe
Reynolds vs. United States
habeas corpus
a legal order for an inquirt to determine whether a person has been lawfully imprisoned
In what part of the country did African Americans make up more than one-third of the population?
the South
Who said, "A foolish consistency is the hoboglobin of little minds"?
Henry Waldo Emerson
What was the significance of the Seneca Falls Convention?
issued a Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions modeled on the Declaration of Independence; called for an end to all laws that discriminated against woman; woman suffrage
Why was General Lee such an effective military leader?
Lee had quick movements, his troops trusted him, bold plans, knowledge of Southern Geography
What conservative policies did the Redeemers adopt in the South.
lower taxes, less public spending, reduced government services
What notable women made contributions in field once closed to women?
Lucretia Mott gave lectures on antislavery, temperance, peace, workers' rights, and abolition, Angelina and Sarah Grimke were early supporters of women's rights. Elizabeth Candy Stanton worked for women suffrage. Susan B. Anthony worked for co-education.
How did pro and antislavery groups change the structure of poltical parties in the 1850s?
Democratics began to divide, death of Henry Clay and Daniel Webster dicouraged party, differing view over slavery destroyed the party, Antislavery whigs and democrats joined with free soilers to form the republican party
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of city life in the North.
Conditions were poor, low pay, mass polution, long hours, disease, fire. Created work, helped economy grow.
dry farming
a way of farming dry land in which sees are planted deep in ground where there is some moisture
What is bias? What role does it play in the political world?
influence in an unfair way. bias in politics
How was the 14th Amendment supposed to help African Americans?
granted full citizenship to all born in US, no state could take away a citizen's life,liberty, and property without "due process of law", every citizen was entitled to "equal protection of the laws"
Who was John Brown? Who was Henry Brown. How did they differ?
John Brown was a fervent abolitionist who believed God had chosen him to end slavery. Henry Brown traveled to Philadelphia in a wooden crate.
slave code
the laws passed in the Southern States that controlled and restricted enslaved people
money given as a reward, as to encourage enlistment in the army
What political reform did the Populists support?
limited president and VP to one term, electing senators directly, secret ballots
What attracted farmers to the Great Plains?
About how many enslaved African Americans found freedom through the Underground Railroad?
3,000 conductors; 1,000s of slaves
What was the purpose of the slaves codes
Meant to control slaves and prevent the slave rebellion
What was the final straw that led the South to secede from the Union? Why?
The Liberator
antislavery newspaper founded by William Lloyd Garrison
Why did growing cotton after the Civil War send many Southern farmers into debt?
grew as cash crop, forced prices down=deeper debt
How did the lives of Northern African Americans differ from those of Southern African Americans?
Slavery had not yet appeared in the North. Blacks still suffered under discrimination and prejudice.
What president brought an end to slavery?
Rutherford B. Hayes
Place the following events in chronological order: Lincoln elected to second tern as president, Battle between the Monitor and Merrimack, Jefferson Davis is captured, First Battle of Bull Run, Confederate army surrenders at Appomattox Court House, Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation, Battle of Gettysburg
First Battle of Bull Run, Battle between the Monitor and Merrimack, Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclimation, Battle of Gettysburg, Lincoln elected to second term as president, Confederate army surrenders at Appomattox Court House, Jeffterson Davis is captured
Summarize Frederick Douglass's role in the abolitionist movement.
taught himself to read, escaped, moved to the North, gave speeches on slavery, and editted an antislavery newspaper called the North Star, believed Africans should be completely equal
What percentage of the population in the North was white in 1800?
98% white
a mass or strip of ore sandwiched between layers of rock
What restrictions did women experience during the 1840s?
couldn't vote, or own property if married; controlled by men
name given to Northern whites who moved South after the war and supported the Republicans
How many times did Harriet Tubman risk her life to help slaves escape?
19 times
List the five parts of the Compromise of 1850.
California would be admitted as a free state, The New Mexican Territory would have no restrictions on slavery. The New Mexico-Texas border dispute would be settled in favor of New Mexico, The Slave Trade, but not slavery itself would be abolished in the District of Columbia, Clay pushed for a stronger fugitibe slave law.
a mineral mined for the valuable substance it contains, such as silver
How did Dorthea Dix win rights for people with mental illness?
spent timein jails, poorhouses, and asylums and then reported her journals to the Massassachusetts legislature who agreed to spend money on hospitals
How did improvements in transportation affect the economy in the North.
Goods and people shipped very quickly, caused a greater demand for the goods which stimulated economy.
How did Lincoln plan to prevent secession.
secession would not be permitted, vowing to hold federal property in the South and to enfore the laws of the United States.
When Lincoln met Harriet Beecher Stowe, he said, "So this is the little lady who wrote the book that made this great war." In what sence was his comment true?
opened up people's eyes to slavery
name given by former Confederates to Southern whites who supported Republican Reconstruction of the South
Place the following events in chronological order: Nat Turner leads a rebellion, Elias Howe invents the sewing machine, Samuel Morse sends the first telegraph message, Cyrus McCormick patents the mechanical reaper, Know-Nothing Party is formed
Nat Turner leads a rebellion, Cyrus McCormick patents the mechanical reaper, Samuel Morse sends the first telegraph message, Elias Howe invents the sewing machine, Know-Nothing party is formed
Compare the use of railroads in the North and South before 1860.
Connected lakes and increased production in the North. South-didn't connect region, cities grew slowly
What role did African Americans play in early Reconstruction politics in the South.
voted and served as elected officials in some Southern states
open range
land not fenced or divided into lots
any group of New England writers who stressed the relationship between human beings and nature, spiritual things over material things, and the importance of the individual conscience
What was the Dred Scott decision?
As a slave, Scott was not a citizen and had no right to bring a lawsuit. Scott's residence and free soil did not make him free. An enslaved person was property, and the 5th Amendment prohibits Congress from taking away property without "due process of the law" Congress had no power to prohibit slavery in any territory. The Missouri Compromise was declared unconstitutional, and so was popular sovereignty. In effect, the decision meant that the Constitution protected slavery.
Normal School
a two-year school for training high school graduates as teaches
system of farming in which works land for an owner who provides equipment and seeds and receives a share of the crop
From what Southern ports did African Americans flee by ship?
Charleston and New Bern
Civil Disobedience
refusal to obey laws that are considered unjust as a nonviolent way to press for changes
How did William Lloyd Garrison's demands make jim effective in the antislavery movement?
first white abolitionist to call for the "immediate and complete emancipation of enslaved people"; harsh as the truth and denounced the slow, graudual approach of other reformers
What problems in society did leading reformers in the temperance movement blame on the manufacturers and sale of alcoholic beverages?
blamed alcohol for poverty, break-up of families, crime, and insanity
How do we recognize bias?
1. Identify author 2. Langauge(all, never) 3. Examine writing for balance of views 4. Identify facts and opinion 5. bias is reflected in views 6.??
What purposes did the Underground Railroad serve besides helping runaway slaves?
provided abolitionists with a way to help some enslaved people and gave hope to slaves
How did inflation affect the lives of people during the war?
Inflation caused great hardship for working people, prices rose
What service did the Freedmen's Bureau provide?
distributed food and clothing, provided medical services that lowered the death rate, established schools and helped freed people aquire land
Why do you think the people in the South rejected compromise efforts altogether by saying, "We spit upon every plan to compromise"?
Southerners accepted secession ready for new government to take care of slavery
Place the following events in chronological order: Civil War began, Dred Scott decision, Missouri Compromise passes, Lincoln is elected president, Uncle Tom's Cabin is published, Kansas-Nebraska Act is passed
Missouri Compromise passes, Uncle Tom's Cabin is published, Kansas-Nebraska Act is passed, Dred Scott decision, Lincoln is elected president, Civil War began
What were the three basic principles in public education?
schools should be free and supported by taxes, teachers should be trained, children should be required to attend school

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