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MUS 101 Test 2


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How did the Ancient Greek influence the Middle Ages?
music was very important
involved in all studies
numerous writings on music
can change our personality/mood

oral tradition
they had no need to keep pieces around
if preserved, it would be passedon
what were the 2 central powers during the middle ages?
Catholic Church and the State
Music for the Church
influenced by ancient Greek and Hebrew Music
no instruments

monophonic church music known as
Types of chant
syllabic and melismatic
1 note per syllable
many notes per syllable
early notes were called
characteristics of plain chant
passed on medieval modes

Hildegard of Bingen
nun who was a poet and musician
claimed to receive her music and poetry from the Holy Spirit
responsorial solo (alternating with choir)

first used in 900 C.E
meter was imposed
notational system was modified to show rhythm
3 was important (Trinity)

polyphony (another name)
when did composers begin to take credit for work?
gothic era
who educated the composers?
the church
at first added a second verse
2 voices could move in parallel or contrary motion
Notre Dame School
very famous for polyphony
Master Leonin
first composer at Notre Dame....polyphony
Leonin's student, added a 3rd voice and eventually a 4th
upper voices textless
eventually unrelated text to upper voices (secular)

Latin (sacred) on bottom
French (secular) on top
bottom line of a motet
secular music
music played outside of church was for entertainment
those who played secular music and traveled
High level minstrels
topics of the secular music
politics, war, laments, dance songs
biggest topic of secular music
courtly love
Guillaume de Machaut
priest who worked in the courts of France
both religious and secular styles
wrote many moetets as well as french songs

another name for french songs
Instrumental Music
very popular (outside of church)
instrumental music was rarely written down...T or F?
the renaissance literally means

Musicians during Reni were supported by
church and state
musicians during reni had more opportunities for
major invention of the reni
printing press
printing press allowed
amateur musicians to flourish
a capella
"in the church style"

text painting
bringing out the text and reflecting it

high leap
Duple meter
2, or divisible by 2
became more common in Reni
During Reni, chant was known as
cantus firmus
acted as bass-line for harmony
adopted by the church in the Reni, but was originally secular
cantus firmus was sung in what language
Josquin des Prez
major composer from Reni
French, but most of time in Italy
combined traditional polyphonic textures with emotion
very expressive

"Pange Lingua Mass"
"Proclaim the Mystery" Trinity
Mass with 4 vocal lines

sacred music
polyphony, gradually enters mass and takes over
Parts of the mass
Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei
Reformation-must popular
Martin Luther
what did the Council of Trent do for music?
simplified hymns so congregation could be involved, changed language
Giovanni Palestrina
organist and choir master at St. Peters
wrote in a simplified polyphonic style
Pope Marcellus Mass
very balanced and structured so text is clear
six vocal parts (rather than 4)
does not loose emotion or expression

aristocratic form of poetry and music in Early Baroque
centered around courtly love
text painting and vocal virtuosity

Features of Baroque
rhythm and meter
emphasis on bass line
functional harmony

doctrine of affections
music had to make you feel something....emotion
Baroque means
misshapen pearl
Florentine Camerata
group of scholars who met to discuss the status of art
greek models
single melody with simple accompaiment modody

dramatic work set to music
composed by Jacopo Peri in 1598
speech song
melodic sections of opera
Claudio Monteverdi
born in Italy
published 1st works at 16
composer for Gonzaga family of Mantera

Monteverdi's work L'Orfeo
based on ancient greek myth of Orpheus
first true opera as we know it**

what did Monteverdi do that was unusal
specified which instruments to use
buzzy sounding reed organ

in early opera, recitative used during
plot and dialogue
in opera, aria used for
Henry Purcell
english composer
"Dido & Aeneas" opera in English
"Dido's Lament"

DaCapo Aria
ABA (fancy, contrast, fancy)
DeCapo Aria uses, but not
cello and harpiscord but no violins
only bass
Antionia Stradivan
violin maker
over 1100 instruments
1 solo instrument with keyboard accompaiment
sonata di camera
chamber sonata (secular)
sonata di chiesa
church sonata
Trio sonata
scored for 2 treble instruments with a "basso continuo"

"basso continuo"
cello, harpiscord all play exact same line
shift to more singing
vocal competition
concert focued on
solo vs. orchestra
solo line became very show' offy
Arcangelo Corelli
first to focus on instrumental music
concerto grosso

"Concerto Grosso"
vocal concert+trio sonata
trio sonata vs orchestra
solosit=concertino (violins)


solo concerto
son soloist-violin
Guieppi Torelli
first solo violin concerto
movement tempi
major figure in instrumental music
"red priest"
Orphanages such as "Ospedale Della Pieta"
"hospital of pitied"
great music program!
Vivaldi worked where?
Ospedale della pieta
wrote hundreds of concerti
published through Amsterdam

solo concert format
at the end of a movement when all stops and soloist gets a chance to show off

"Four Seasons"
took poems and wrote music to them
tells a story

Deck Info