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Medieval/17th Century History Final


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Claudio Monteverdi
Important for his Madrigal's and Opera's

First and major job is church musician for the Duke of Montua

Chapelmeister at San Marco (most prestigious music position at the time)

Wrote 9 books of madrigals, each with 20+ madrigals

Wrote: stage ballets, church music, operas
9 Books of Madrigals

First 4 books, prima prattica

Book 5 titled, "Second Practice" or "On the Perfection of Modern Music" (first use of basso continuo)

Books 6-9, second prattica
Madrigals of War and Love
In the 8th book of Madrigals by Monteverdi

Contains many musical qualities: operatic, cantata, small madrigals, orchestra, trio's, duets

Cals for pizzicato (the first kind of specific call from the composer for the performer to play a certain way)
Background of Vocal Music before Opera
In chroal works, it was used to enhance the drama

Used in comedies as musical entertainment between acts of a play

Began to write madrigals on the same subjects of the larger work telling a short story

This is during time of the 2nd Generation of Italian Madrigals
More information, more text, more story, less melody

Reaction against polyphony

Florentine Camarata

Le Nueve Musiche-1602
Florentine Camarata
People that met together to talk about the status of the arts

Wanted to get back to the idea of Greek drama

Deliver a lot of text over a somewhat simple melody

Stile representato

Writes the first real important opera

Wider range and specified instrumentation

Uses Castrati

Has a ritornello: a short instrumental piece that is repeated; used as a dance, moving music)
Primary composer of the day

Achieved cariety and flexibility in his pieces

Wrote strophically, and strophic variation (one amount of music with several versus to it)

Wrote recitative style
Opera in Rome
Becomes more popular as a perfomance opportunity

Overture grows (slow-fast-slow)

More chorus than other places (presence of Pope made music more restricted)

Recitative style (secco-dry, sparse accompaniment)
Opera in Venice
San Cassiano-1637 (first opera house was built and opened)

Very important there

Writing for virtuoso singers

Aria/recitative becomes very important

Orchestra is for strings and basso c.

By late 17th century, aria is more and more popular (music over text)
Neopolitan Opera-1650

Not much chorus

Scene structure

Leads to Handel
Aria Types
More important than Recitatives

Aria cantabile: singing style

Aria parlante: speaking style (words are more humorous, and are more important than the melody, but more tuneful than recitative)
Recitative Types
Secco recitative: dry, not as fun, less accompaniment

Accompanied recitative
French Opera
1 violin; 3 viola's; 1 cello-bass

Most always in 5 acts

Meter is changed to properly stress the text

Music matches language

Adopted "peasant" dances
gavotte 4/4
bouree 2/4
minuet 3/4

Dances were used primarily for ballet

Ballet was huge for French Opera

Chorus not used extensively

Jean-Baptiste Lully-1632-87
Born in Florence

Worked for King Louis XIV (superintendent of the Kings music)

Had secured a financial monopoly over all operas in France

Wrote 28 complete versions of ballets
Stile moderno

Still being written,but not new fashion

Monteverdi's books have madrigals with addition of basso c.

Madrigal comedy-telling a story
An entire opera, but no sets or costumes

Intended as worship music

Weren't as long as opera's
Cantata (17th c. Vocal Chamber)
Smaller scale, secular form

basso continuo or instrumental accompaniment

Series of recitative/aria's

Not intended for large space, usually done in a small room (cantata da camera)
Alessandro Scarlatti
Most active in Naples

Wrote about 600 chamber cantatas

See the beginning of Da Capo aria's
- becomes standard of Baroque

"Syntagma Musicum"
-scale drawings of all instruments of that period
H. Schuetz
Early was mostly sacred composer

Large Style/Small Style/Large Style
Early Middle Late

"Saul"- sacred symphony, concertato style, mixes ideas
Important because he establishes the form by which Bach takes and runs-fugue
Vocal Chamber (France)
Basso continuo comes in late to France
-Lully used it a lot

Grande and Petit Motet
-Petit for shorter services
Vocal Chamber (England)
Aren't the best innovators

Nothing really new comes out
Improvisation (instrumental Baroque)
Becomes more important because of basso c. and figured bass



Basic tune is taken then varied

Theme and Variation comes out of process
Harmonic sequence

Taking a melody and a chord progression and repeat on higher/lower pitches

Used a lot in the Baroque period
Half steps being equal is a Baroque phenominon

Multiple types of tuning were done to make a leading tone attack tonal center
Baroque Instruments
Violin developed from Viol

Keyboard Inst.: Harpsichord; Clavichord; Organ; later...piano

Winds developed from the Shyam

Timpani is about only percussive instrument of the time
Non-sectional (monothematic), through-composed


Develops into what is known as fugue
Like ricercare except Sectional

Imitative counterpoint

Sonata develops out of canzona

Sonata de chiesa (for the church)
Also called a partita: later becomes suite

English called them divisions
Dance Types
Suite-(German) primarily a collection for keyboard players, of the same 4 dances

Ordre-(French) simply a collection of pieces
Style Brise
arpeggiated figures
marks in the piece that identify improvisation
means, "to touch"
Sonata de chiesa
Church sonata

Usually 4 mvts; slow/fast/slow/fast

tempo markings for mvts. ex. presto
Sonata da camera
More secular sonata

Most often an introductory piece (prelude) followed by 3-5 mvts.

Dance names for mvts. ex. sarabande
It is a piece for a small group of instrumentalkists, 2-4 + basso continuo (2 players)
Mainly German style

Intended for keyboard only
Arcangelo Corelli
Wrote NO vocal music

Foundation for modern violin technique

Wrote sonata de chiesa/da camera, concerti grossi, solo sonatas
Techniques of A. Corelli
Not technically different

Solo sonatas can be virtuosic, but not trio sonatas

Suspensions all over music, very Baroque

Beginning of tonic/dominant relationship

Music often based off single musical idea

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