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Social Studies Chapter 5 Test


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traditional story describing gods or heroes or explaining natural events
sacred shrine where a priest or priestess spoke for a god or goddess
long poem that tells about legendary or heroic deeds
story told by actors who pretend to be characters in the story
form of drama in which a person struggles to overcome difficulties but meets an unhappy end
form of drama in which the story has a happy ending
study of the nature and meaning of life; comes from the Greek word for "love of wisdom"
thinker who seeks wisdom and ponders questions about life
professional teacher in ancient Greece; believed that people should use knowledge to improve themselves and developed the art of public speaking and debate
Socratic method
way of teaching developed by Socrates that used a question-and-answer format to force students to use their reason to see things for themselves
what a person leaves behind when he or she dies
Hellenistic Era
period when the Greek language and Greek ideas spread to the non-Greek peoples of southwest Asia
philosophy founded by Epicurus in Hellenistic Athens; taught that happiness through the pursuit of pleasure was the goal of life
philosophy founded by Zeno in Hellenistic Athens; taught that happiness came not from following emotions, but from following reason and doing one's duty
person who studies stars, planets, and other heavenly bodies
Mount Olympus
the highest mountain in Greece; according to Greek mythology, the home of the 12 most important Greek gods and goddesses
ancient Greek city and the site of the oracle at the Temple of Apollo
Greek poet and author of the epics the Iliad and the Odyssey
stories based on courage, honor, and loyalty
may have been blind
a Greek slave known for his famous fables, which he composed about 550 B.C.
a Greek general and well-known writer of tragedies; he introduced three actors in his stories and placed painted scenes behind the stage as a backdrop to the action; his most famous plays are Oedipus Rex and Antigone
A Greek playwright know for his tragedies in which he questioned traditional thinking, especially about war
Greek philosopher and mathematician famous for his Pythagorean theorum in geometry; he believed that all relationships in the world could be expressed in numbers
An Athenian sculptor and philosopher who was a critic of the Sophists; he believed in an absolute right and wrong and created the Socratic method of teaching through questioning
a student of Socrates, he wrote the Republic in which he describes his ideal government; he believed in equal education and job opportunities for men and women; he also established a school in Athens known as the Academy
a student of Plato, he opened his own school called the Lyceum; he taught his students the golden mean, which says that a person should do nothing in excess; he encouraged scientific observation and wrote about government
considered the "father of history", he wrote the history of the Persian Wars; he asked questions, recorded answers, and checked the truthfulness of his sources; he tried to separate fact from legend
considered the greatest historian of the ancient world, he wrote the History of the Peloponnesian War; he is known for reporting accurate facts
a powerful kingdom that lay north of Greece; it was ruled by Philip II in 359 B.C.
a battle in which the Macedonians defeated the Greek army near Thebes in 338 B.C.; after this battle Phillip II controlled all of Greece
a region in ancient times that was located on the eastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea and was conquered by Alexander the Great; today this area consists of the countries of Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan
poet during the Hellenistic Era who wrote short poems about the beauty of nature
an astronomer who claimed that the sun was the center of the universe at a time when other astronomers thought that the Earth was the center of the universe
an astronomer in charge of the library at Alexandria; he concluded that the Earth was round and measured the circumference of the Earth and distance to the sun and moon using his knowledge of geometry and astronomy
the most famous Greek mathematician and author of the book Elements, which describes plane geometry
a Greek scientist of the Hellenistic Era who worked on solid geometry, that is the study of spheres and cylinders; he figured out the value of pi, the number used to measure the area of circles, and he invented catapults, machines that hurled arrows
Who is Zeus
He is king of the gods and God of the sky. God of rain and lighting.
Symbol-oak tree and eagle
Weapon- thunder bolt and lighting
Powers- punishing crime, and protecting faithful worshippers
Who is Athena
She is the goddess of wisdom and all intellectual activities
Symbol- owl and olive tree
Weapon- lance and shield
Powers- giving men wisdom and protecting Athens
Who is Hera
She is the goddess of women and motherhood. Queen of all gods.
Symbol- None
Warpon- prophesy and trickery
Powers- commanding the winds and watching over women and mothers
Who is Demeter
Goddess of the harvest
Symbol- None
Weapon- None
Powers- controlling all harvests
Who is Aphrodite
Goddess of love and beauty
Symbol- Dove, apple,myrtle, and rose
Weapon- None
Powers- making both gods and mortals fall in love with whomever she chooses
Who is Artemis
Goddess of the moon and the hunt
Symbol- lion, bear, wolf, and many wild birds
Weapon- bow and arrow
Powers- protecting cities, wild animals, and women
Twin of Apollo
Who is Ares
God of war
Symbol- spear and flaming torch
Warpon- spearPowers- waging war
Who is Hermes
Messenger of gods, also, god of dreams, commerce, treaties, travelers, inventions, science, arts,and oratory
Symbol- the #4
Weapon- None ( he carries a messenger's staff with a white ribbon that marked him as neutral in any conflict)
Powers- traveling anywhere instantly
Who is Apollo
God of sun, medicine, music, poetry, dance mathematics, herdsmen, and prophecy
Symbol- Laurel tree and the number 7
Weapon- bow and arrow
Powers- making the sun rise, promoting learning, and healing people
Twin of Artemis
Who is Hestia
Goddess of hearth and marriage
Symbol- None
Weapon- None
Powers- protectibng all orphan and homeless children and watching over the home
Who were the Titans
Powers- controlling the sea, sun, moon, harvesta, justice, planets,and memories
6 brothers and 5 sisters
Who is Hephaestus
God if blacksmiths and craftsmen
Symbol- blacksmith's hammers and armor of the gods
Weapon- None but made the gods their armor
Powers- creating magical, useful, and beautiful objects
Who is Poseidon
God of the seas and navigation
Symbol- pine tree and horse
Weapon- trident(can cause storms, floods, and earthquakes, eprings to flow and rivers to dry up)
Powers- causing and calming earthquakes, storms, and other natural disasters
Who is Dionysus
God of wine and parties
Symbol- grapes, ivy and rose
Weapon- None
Powers- bringing great joy and productivty or misery and destruction to mortals
Who is Hades
God of the underworld and King of the dead
Symbol- None
Weapon- cap of invisibility
Powers-bringing about death and ruling the Underworld
What is the Socratic Method?
question everything
How did Plato feel about democracy?
only the wise should work
What was Aristotle's ideal form of govenment?
Who is the "Father of History"?
Decribe the main difference Herodotus and Thucydides
T~ history was caused by people
H~ incorperated by gods
Decribe the Ilaid
the prince of Troy (Paris), kidnaps tehe wife (Helen) of the king of Sparta
The Greek city-states unite and attack Troy
Who is Achilles?
most famous Greek soldier
Who is Hector?
most famous Trojan soldier and the Prince of Troy
The 3 types of columns
Doric~ plain looking
Ionic~ curvy looking
Cirinthian~ fancy looking
"Golden Mean"
A balance
B harmany
C moderation
Decribe the Odyssey
Tells the story if Odysseus
~ decribes his journey homefrom Troy
~ encounters storms, witches, giants,monsters, etc.
How long did the Trojan War last?
10 years
Decribe the war
~Greeks sneak into a wooden horse as a "peace offering" and then the Greeks capture Troy
~ "What started with anapple, ended with a horse".
Who was Philp the 2nd?
king of Macedonia(N of Greece)
~wanted to conquer Persia
~ needed to expand his army/land
~ needed to unite Greece/Macedonia
~ He conquers Greece at the Battle of Chaeronea
What is the Hellenistic Era???
~ due to Alexander's conquests, Greek ideas & culture spread to non-Greek areas
"like the Greeks"
Alexander the Great (decribe him and his duties)
1- takes over after father is murdered
2- wants to fulfill father's dreams if conquering Persia
3- Major conquests of Persia
4- plans to invade S. Arabia but becomes ill anddies
Extend into India & Pakistan
Empire falls... name the 4 thing that happened
Generals fight for power after his death
divide into
Random Fact you need to know
A- philos, poets, scientists, etc., moved to new Greek cities during Hellenistic Era
Example- Alexandria
1- hired Greek architects to duplicate Greekcities
Apollonius- Arganautica
most stories were about love and relationships
Where do most of the Gods live?
Mt. Olympus
Oedipus Rey
tragic taleof man who marries his mother and kills his dad

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