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chapter 23


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Siemens brothers
German brothers who established branches of their electrical firm in England, Germany, and Russia.
Max Planck
author of quantum theory
movement in literature and painting that aimed at the objective reproduction of reality without idealization
Auguste Comte
French thinker, inventor of the word sociology and proponent of positivism
olga semyonova tian-shanskaia
russian ethnographer who collected folk songs and important data on the russian peasantry
Herbert Spencer
English philosopher and political theorist who cointed the phrase "survival of the fittest"
Gustav Klimt
Viennese painter whose portraits integrated rich abstract patterns with realistic and expressive human faces
Fyodor Dostoevsky
Russian Realist novelist whose expansive narratives examine conscience, character, and redemption
Artistic movement in France beginning in the 1870s that aimed to reproduce the painter's impression of light on a scene
movement for equal rights for women, including legal equality and the right to vote
theory of relativity
theory stating that the speed of light is always constant while distance and time are relative to the observer
Florence Nightingale
English reformer and creator of nursing as a profession who was instrumental in creating hygienic, well-organized hospitals
albet einstein
german physicist most famous for his theory of relativity
time for relaxation or recreation, new in the later 19th century owing to industrial and social advances
printing method used widely from the 1830s that produced text and color images used in posters and illustrated magazines
Suez Canal
An artificial waterway connecting the Red Sea and the Mediterranean, built by the British and French and opened in 1869
John Snow
English physician who proved that cholera is spread by drinking water and who pioneered the use of chloroform to deaden pain
Emile Durkheim
French sociologist influenced by positivism who used empirical methods and statsitcs to study society
Thomas Edison
American inventor of the microphone, record player, and the first commercially practical light bulb
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
French artist who created bright and compelling posters advertising nightclub singers and dance halls
Marie Curie
Polish-born chemist and physicist who studied radioactivity and radium, the winner of two Nobel prizes
Bon Marche
First department store, opened in Paris in 1852 and catered primarily to middle-class people
charles darwin
English scientist who formulated the theory of natural selection and authored On the Origin of Species
Jean-Francois Millet
French painter concerned with depicting social problems in a realistic style
Emmeline Pankhurst
English crusader for women's suffrage who was often arrested for her radical activities
Louis Pasteur
French scientist who developed a process for heating liquids to kill disease-casuing
Ilya Repin
Russian Realist artist who specialized in painting enormous scenes from Russian past and contemporary life
Gregor Mendel
Austrian monk credited with the discovery of theory of genetic heredity
belief that all knowledge can be derived from scientific observation
brightly colored print, often of a religious or historical scene, mass-produced and sold by peddlers to Russian peasants
Morse code
system combining dots and dashes representing letters, invented by the American Samuel Morse for sending messages over the electrical telegraph
comte's philosophy of knowledge emphasizing empirical observation and the idea that all natural and human phenomena can be explained in scientific terms
artistic movement beginning in 1909 with a "manifesto" that stressed energy, movement, even violence in visual and literary art.
magic lantern
early form of the modern slide projector that projected images painted on glass plates onto a screen
Salon de Paris
Exhibition of paintings sponsored every otehr year by the academy of Painting and Sculpture.
Sir charles Lyell
english geologist whose Principle of Geology suggested that the world must be far older than hitherto imagined
mass society
modern society characterized by universal legal rights, education, a large middle calss, and a high level of equality among classes
Guglielmo Marconi
Italian physicist best known for perfection of radio; awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in 1909
Rosa Luxemburg
Polish-Jewish socialist who worked with V.I. Lenin and was murdered in 1919 by right-wing nationalists after a communist uprising in berlin
Trans-Siberian Railroad
russias ambitious railway project connecting Moscow with the Pacific Ocean, begun in 1891 and completed in 1916, which caused friction with Japan
friedrich nietzsche
german philosopher renowned for his demand for a complete revision of human ethics and who notoriously despised mass society
Pablo Picasso
Spanish painter, founder of the Cubist school, and lifelong experimenter with abstract techniques
Siemens-Martin (open hearth) process
Technological advance that allowed mass production of steel
Claude Monet
French Impressionist painter best known for his studies of light on landscapes, such as haystacks and the Rouen Cathedral
employment that does not involve physical labor, such as that of professionals and office workers.
Pseudoscience aiming to improve humanity by encouraging tose with desirable traits to reproduce; now discredited as racist
Crystal Palace Exhibition
Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations, opened in London's Crystal Palace in 1851
Panama Canal
An artificial waterway connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, built from 1904 to 1914 by American military engineers.
John D. Rockefeller
founder of the Standard Oil Company, which dominated the American petroleum market
abstract art
art depicting the artists view of the world through free use of color and shapes
Arts and Crafts movement
Effort led by English artist and designer william morris to merge beautiful design and workmanship with industrial techniques
Edouard Manet
French painter who chose scandalous subjects and influenced the later Impressionists
sigmund freud
emphasized the role of fundamental and prerational drives, icluding sexual desire, in human behavior
Honore Daumier
French artist best known for his bitingly sarcastic caricatures of contemporary political figures and bourgeois society
Robert Koch
German bacteriologist who established that many diseases like anthrax, tuberculosis, and cholera were caused by bacterial infections
painters who challenged traditional realism by breaking up three-dimensional figures into different "cubes"
social Darwinists
Theorists who applied Darwin's theory of natural selection to human society, arguing that poorer and weaker segments of society desrved their fate.
max weber
german sociologist who considered religious belief, charisma, and bureaucracy central influences on political and social life
freuds theory that memories and desires not acknowledged by a person's conscious thoguht can lead to physical and mental disorders
legal protection for authors and artists, giving them specific rights to profit from the works they create
towns inhabited mainly by jews

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