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Leisure Studies Exam 2


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The Catharsis Theory is based on the view that play serves as a safety valve for the expression of bottled-up emotions. True or False?
Which theorist felt play was a way for children to deal with reality?
Sigmund Freud
According to your textbook what culture believed that play was an integral element of education and a means for positive character development?
John Huizinga and Roger Caillois had a differing opinion regarding play. What was that difference?
Huizinga felt play was controlled and Caillois thought there were two extremes.
Which one of these is NOT a certain universal wish of mankind of the Self-Expression Theory?

The wish for a new experience.
The wish for participation in a group enterprise.
The wish to dominate.
The wish for security.
The wish to dominate.
Of these theories, which are ones that represent twentieth century concepts of play? Hint: there are two answers.

Self-Expression Theory
Surplus-Energy Theory
Recreation Theory
Play as a Social Necessity
Self-Expression Theory and Play as a Social Necessity
Typology of play:

Acceptance of illusions.
Typology of play:

Games of chance.
Typology of play:

Chances of winning are artificially created.
Typology of play:

Pursuit of vertigo.
Tiger Woods has on occassion described his ability during the height of competition as being "in the zone". Commercially, he says, "I did not have my A game". What twentieth century theory also describes this feeling?
What does John Huizinga's work entitled "Homo Ludens" mean?
Man the Player
Instinct Practice Theory developed by...
Karl Groos.
Recreation Theory developed by...
Moritz Lazarus.
Surplus-Energy Theory developed by...
Herbert Spencer.
Self-Expression Theory developed by...
Mitchell and Mason.
Gray and Greben argue that recreation should not be perceived as the outcome of participation. True or False?
Which of the following is NOT within the definition of recreation according to the definition provided by the author?

Socially constructive and morally acceptable.
Pain and danger.
Voluntary and intrinsic.
Must i
Must include some form of rules.
True or False? Recreation has traditionally been thought of as tedious, unpleasant and obligatory.
Which one of the recreational behaviors involves participation in which the stakes are often physical injury or possible death?

"a state of being in which activity is performed for its own sake."
Symbol of Social Class
ruling classes emerged that identified themselves sharply through the possession and use of leisure.
Unobligated Time
free time after the practical necessities of life have been attended to...
recuperation through play is not wholly relegated to inertia--doing nothing--but is gained through action.
State of Being Marked by Freedom
perceived freedom of the activity and on the role of leisure involvement in helping the individual achieve personal fulfillment and self-enrichment.
One of the major contributions of the Greeks to leisure was
Town planning
Early indications of an emerging leisure class were
Ownership in land
Being a part of the priesthood
Military Rank
At the turn of the century Americans were beginning to undergo massive changes in response to changing economic and social conditions. This included...
The emergence of a new middle class.
Royal hunting preserves, formal garden Parks and English garden parks were the first large Parks created in what era?
One of the major contributions to leisure by ancient Israel was...
The Sabbath!
During the Middle Ages play was discouraged by the church, but still practiced among the public. True or False?
Rome in the early days (A.D. 354) was noted for the many holidays devoted to...
Placating the masses
In ancient Greece the largest segment of the population was...
Spectators of the early olympiads typically excluded which group?
Married women
Early olympians entered the stadium adorned in?
In the nude :)
The root meaning of the greek work stadion (meaning stadium) was...
Place to stand
Olympia was prepared for the masses and welcomed them in preparation for one of the largest public holidays. True or False?
According to the Athenian philosopher and sports buff Epictecus of the first century, what keep people coming back?
The olympics were a metaphor for human existance.
The olympiad lasted how long?
five days
Both the torch and the marathon were iconic symbols of the first olympiad? True or False?
The Boston Sand Garden is recognized as the landmark in the development of the recreation movement in the United States; what was one of the most important outcomes of that first playground?
Fredrick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux started construction on Central Park in what year?
Theodore Roosevelt
encouraged the acquisition of numerous new areas for the federal park system.
Joseph Lee
*Father of Playground Movement-1890's

*Independently Wealthy

*Recognized need based on delinquency

*President of the Playground Association of America for 27 years

*Believed play forms had to be taught

*Play required leadership

*Felt play and work were closely related

*Surveyed play and open spaces

*"Arrested for Living": dropouts, special needs, school lunch, medical attention, wider use of buildings.

*1898- Columbia Avenue playground

*Play in Education
Luther Halsey Gulick
*Developed early forms of p.e.

*Advocate of physical training.

*Helped est. Playground Assoc. of America

*First president of the Camp Fire Girls

*Distinguished play from recreation

*Convince Naismith to create off season training program.

*Olympic committee-1906-Athens.

*Developed YMCA symbol.

*Founded public school athletic leagues.

*Instrumental in est. Boy Scouts
Jane Addams
*Est. Hull House in Chicago- 1889

*Children, youth, and immigrants:
kindergarten, daycare, employment bureau, art gallery, libraries.

*Feminist pioneer.

*Meeting place for labor unions.

*Peace mvmt. advocate.

-Immigrants protection league
-Jouvenile Protection Assoc.
-Compulsory edu. laws
-VP of Camp Fire Girls
-Nobel Peace Prize in 1931.
Early in the development of_______, Milwaukee authorities began to realize a reduction in juvenile deliquency.
Which of the following reasons best describes why there was little in the way of music, theater and dance in the early colonial period?
There was no nobility possessing wealth, leisure or inclination to patronize the arts.
As the nineteenth century was coming to a close the antagonistic view of play increased. Many felt the only way to improve his or her lot in life was through honest toil. Which faith most strongly supported this notion?
The first major city park to be developed in the United States was where and how big was it?
New York; 843 acres
Among the "Three Pioneers" who was most noted for reforming American cities and forcing them to address major issues of the time including slavery, immigrants, slums, and child labor?
Jane Addams
What Act was passed in the Massachusetts Colony that set aside 2,000 bodies of water for "fishing and fowling?"
Great Ponds Act 1641
Based on one of the articles on Sports you read from the Electronic Reserve, sports can cause an individual to deviate from the norms of society either during or after participation. True or False?
According to one of the articles from the Electronic Reserve on Sports, athletes many times are not willing to speak out because
Their sponsors don't want them to speak out about issues.
In the article on deviant behavior in sports which group showed the least change in their behavior?
Group III
According to the article which of the following was not emphasized in power and performance sports?

Use of strength and speed
Record setting
Hierarchial structure
What income group has the highest participation in sports?
$50,000 - $74,999
During the late 1990's there was a decline in television ratings for which sport mentioned by the author?
Professional Football
Which of the following had the largest increase percentage in attendance from 1995 to 2000?

College Basketball
College Football
National Hockey League
Major League Baseball
National Hockey League
According to your book, in 1998, ABC, CBS and FOX collectively agreed to pay how much to broadcast sports events?
$17.6 million
In the year 2000 how much did Americans spend on sporting goods?
74.4 Billion
Which one of the recreational behaviors involves activities in which people group together because of common interests?

Herbert Spencer
Surplus-Energy Theory:
*Burn up excess energy through play.
*Wrote Principles of Psychology in mid- nineteenth-century.
*Play among children was imitation of adult activities.
Wrestling, chasing, etc. involved "Predatory Instincts."
*Saturday and Sunday idea.
*"Survival of the fittest"
Moritz Lazarus
Recreation Theory:

Rather than burning up energy as Spencer suggested, Lazarus felt it was to: Renew, Restore, Re-charge.

*Used when one was tired to become untired.
*Brain energy was renewed through play.
Karl Groos
Instinct-Practice Theory:

*Wrote texts on the play of animals and the play of humans.
*Play in animals help them perfect skills needed in adult life.
*Four Major Play Instincts:
-imitative OR dramatic
*With adults these instincts take a long time to advance, but with animals, they can advance at a rapid pace.
Stanley Hall
Recapitulation Theory:

*Expression of heredity.
*Re-enactment of ancestors.
*Ontongeny RE Phylogeny:
-egg is embryo and egg opens and chicken is born. Phylogically, it looks like a chicken.
*We typically repeat those things as a group that we did as an individual.
*We'll always repeat what others have done (bellbottoms).
Stanley Hall: Children travel through historical periods...
1. Animals
2. Savage
3. Nomad
4. Tribal
Stanley Hall: Animal Period
We should be left alone until we're 8 yrs.
Stanley Hall: Savage Period
If we want to fit in, we take things we want (no matter if it's socially acceptable).
Stanley Hall: Nomad
Moving around, doing different things.

We begin to socialize in pre-school and kindergarten.

Hall said we shouldn't go to school until our teens and we should never go to school with a co-ed setting.
Kindergarten began during what years?
1872 & 1873
Stanley Hall: Tribal Period
Last period in Hall's historical periods.
Mitchell and Mason
Self-Expression Theory:

*Play was result of the need for self-expression. Humans need an outlet for energy.
*Specific types of activity influenced by physiological and anatomical structure, physical fitness level, environment, and fam and social background.
*Universal wishes of humankind were influential in shaping play attitudes and habits.
What are the Universal Wishes of Humankind?
1. New Experiences
2. Participation w/ Groups
3. Security
4. Response and Recognition of Others
5. Aesthetics
Johan Huizinga
*Wrote Homo Ludens (Man the Player).
*Play pervades all of life marked by:
-Voluntary activity
-Never imposed by physical necessity and appetites
-Play is controlled by sets of rules and it demands absolute order.
*It is marked by uncertainty and tension.
Johan Huizinga: Two Kinds of Activities
1. Contests for Something= War as Play

2. Representation of Something= Play in Business
Johan Huizinga: Most important thing to remember
"War represents the ultimate playground."
Jean Piaget
Felt there were four child processes (stages) in development.

1. Sensory Motor
2. Pre-operational Stage
3. Concrete Operation Stage
4. Formal Operations Stage
Jean Piaget: Sensory Motor Stage
Birth to 2 yrs.

Infant uses senses and motor abilities to understand the world.

Ex. of Schemas: Circular motions (sucking thumb).
Jean Piaget: Pre-operational Stage
2 yrs. to 7 yrs.

*Symbolization, remembering past and future.

*Child sees things from one point of view.

*Mommy went to work. She will return.
Jean Piaget: Concrete Operational Stage
7 yrs. to 11 yrs.

Logical operations, Liquid volume, marbles, and sticks.
Jean Piaget: Formal Operations Stage
12 yrs. and Up

Reciprocal negotiation, adult style thinking.
-Some of us NEVER make it to this stage.
Roger Callois
*Wrote "Man, Play, and Games"
*Play is:
-separated from other parts of life
-governed by rules
*Games and activities are seen as characteristics of cultures.
*Four types of games.
*Two extremes of games.
Roger Callois: Four Types of Games
1. Agon
2. Alea
3. Mimicry
4. Ilinx
Roger Callois: Two Extremes of Games
Padia- exuberance–spontaneous activity-uncontrolled freedoms

ex: mosh pits

Ludus- rules and conventions control calculated and controlled activity.

ex: chess
Mihalyi Cziksentmihayli

*Players skill matched against challenge level.
*If task is too simple, players become bored, and if task is too complex, players become anxious and quit.
*Sense of Flow
Mihalyi Cziksentmihayli: Sense of Flow
*Sensation players have when they're totally involved in the activity.

*"The Zone."

*Feeling of harmony and full immersion in play.

*At peak level, players might lose their sense of time and their surrounding.

*They may even experience an altered state of being.
Friedrich Froebel
*German educator, and founder of Kindergarten.
1837- Garden of children
*Self activity
*Teacher role to encourage self expression.
*We play our hearts out!
Catharsis Theory
*Based on the view that play (esp. competitive play) is a safety valve for the expression of built-up emotions.
-Primal scream or guy who threw dog across the highway in CA.
*Purging of hostile or aggressive emotions.
*Vicariously sharing:
-Venting of unsociable tendencies through well organized activities.
-Very close to Spencer's Surplus Energy Theory.
Surplus-Energy Theory
Herbert Spencer:

Play motivated by the need to burn-up excess energy.
Recreation Theory
Converse of the Schiller-Spencer view.

Developed by Moritz Lazarus

Purpose of play is to restore and renew.
Instinct Practice Theory
Karl Groos

Play in animals helps perfect skills.

Four Major Play Instincts:

1. Fighting
2. Love/Courtship
3. Imitative OR dramatic
4. Social
Robert Callois:

Exuberance-spontaneous activity-uncontrolled freedoms

ex: Mosh pit
Robert Callois:

Rules and conventions control calculated and controlled activity

ex: Chess
Recapitulation Theory
Stanley Hall

*Expression of heredity

*Reenactment of ancestors

*Ontongeny RE Phylogeny

*We typically repeat those things as a group we did as an individual.
Self-Expression Theory
Elmer Mitchell and Bernard Mason:

*Humans need an outlet for energy.

*Universal wishes of: new experiences, participation with groups, security, response and recognition of others, aesthetics.
Stimulus Arousal Theory
Humans and animals constantly seek stimuli for various reasons including:

1. to gain knowledge
2. satisfy need for excitement
3. risk
4. pleasure

*Play often serves not to reduce drives and tensions but to create and satisfy them. By that, the player achieves a sense of arousal and emotional release.
Spillover Theory

Leisure becomes an extension of work because the person enjoys his work so much. This is the reverse of Compensatory Theory.
Jane Addams: Hull House Firsts
Social Settlement for men and women.

Public baths.


Citizenship preparation.

College extension courses.

Public swimming pool in Chicago.

1st Boy Scouts troop in Chicago.

1st playground.

1st little theater.
Compensatory Theory
Leisure stems from and is influenced by work.

Leisure is used to compensate for the demands of work.
Early Organizations Included...
*YMCA (1851) and YWCA (1866).
*University Settlement in NYC in 1886
*Hull House in Chicago- 1889
*National Assoc. of Boys' Clubs- 1906
*Boy Scouts/ Camp Fire Girls- 1910
*Girl Scouts- 1912
*Rotary Club, Kiwanis, Lions Club- btwn. 1910- 1917.
Central Park

First major park to be developed in an American city.

843-acres, designed by Olmsted and Vaux

"refreshment of the mind and nerves"
Lyceum Movement
Lectures, readings, and other educational events reflecting the view that all citizens should be educated in order to participate knowledgeably in affairs of govnt.
Sponsored a lecture circuit and a leading summer camp program in upstate NY for families with varied cultural activities, sports, lectures, and edu. features.

By twentieth C., circuit and independent ones were formed.

Promoted the Lyceum Mvmt.
Conference on State Parks

directed by Stephen Mather (director of National Park Service).

Park Service was primarily to acquire and administer areas of national significance- state govnts take more resp. for getting sites of lesser interest or value.
Civilian Conservation Corps.
Helped to est. state park systems in a number of states with no organized park programs before 1933.

built/improved 12,700 playgrounds, 8,500 gyms and rec buildings, 750 pools, 1,000 ice skating rinks, 64 ski jumps.

Between 1930's and 1948.

Initiated under F.D. Roosevelt's New Deal.
Greek word for "GO!"
Greek word for drinking parties
400-yard sprint in full armor
a savage all–out brawl, where the only banned tactic was eye gouging.
an unskilled person as well as an ignormaus.
Animal Play includes
Locomotor, Predatory, Object, Social aspects.
Children experience________through play (5 things).
Logical thinking
Risk taking
Negotiation skills
Active learning
Swiss-French philosopher

1728-Felt humans had been corrupted by society and civilization.

-tasting alcohol for the first time.
Friedrich Von Schiller

1750's- Exploration of freedom-cope with reality (like Freud).

Examining inward freedom of the soul and physical frailties.
Definition of Play
*form of human or animal activity
*intrinsic rather than extrinsic
*generally pleasurable
*may be marked by: competition, humor, creative exploration, prob. solving.
*may occur at work but mostly during leisure
*marked by freedom but may include rules.
Definition of Leisure
*unobligated time
*6 different view of leisure
*can occur in small acriments of time but sometimes in larger amounts.

*used to be only for the wealthy.
Leisure in Different Languages
Latin- Licere- to be free or permitted to be free.

French- Loisir- free time.

English- License and Liberty- Immunity from public obligation.

Common idea that there is free choice and the absense of compulsion.
Classic Views of Leisure
Leisure is activity.

Leisure includes music, art, community involvement, and phys. fitness.

Moderation is pre-req

Peace is pre-req

People must be taught proper use of leisure.
6 Views of Leisure
Leisure as a symbol of social class.

Leisure as unobligated time.

Leisure as activity.

Leisure as a state of being.

Leisure as a spiritual expression.

Leisure seen in relationship to work.
Greek term for Leisure but also referred to places where scholarly discusisons were held.
Latin word with close connection to leisure and education.
School and scholar
English words related to leisure and education.
Motivations for Recreation
1. Intellectual Experience
2. Social
3. Competency
4. Stimulus/ Avoidance
4 Historically Essential Elements of Recreation
1. Be light and restful activity.
2. Be voluntary.
3. It allows one to regain energy after heavy work.
4. It renews you so you can return to work.
Contemporary Definitions of Rec
1. Activities carried on under certain conditions or with certain motivations.

2. Activities that create a "state of being" given a set of expectations.

3. Rec as a social institution, body of knowledge, and professional field.
Two Distinct Viewpoints of Rec
1. Activity pursued during leisure isn't motivated by reward beyond activity.

2. Worthwhile, socially acceptable leisure experiences provide satisfaction and voluntary participation.
Why do we recreate?
We recreate for engagement.

It encompasses all the variety of reasons for us taking the first step.
Definition of Recreation
Different dimensions for various people: anything voluntarily chosen and pleasurable, amusement w/ outcomes limited to immediate satisfaction w/o moral regulation.

Requires implicitly social acceptability if part of an organized community or voluntary agency.

Occurs in Leisure time.

Chosen for Intrinsic purposes but may also be extrinsic.

Socially constructive and morally acceptable.
Leisure class is mostly people with
ownership and thus nobility.
Renaissance marked a definite
power shift in history because church was now in charge.
Within the Greek society we begin to establish
a leisure class
In Roman culture
anything was okay if amusing!
needed to est. order and get rid of corruption.

John Calvin and protestant "Honest Toil."
Colonial Period
Opened up lots of room for people to do what they wanted in different areas of America.
The Olympics began in
776 B.C.
The Olympics went on every four years for about
1200 years.
Temple of Zeus Significance
Zeus had a fight with his father Chronos.

One of the 7 Wonders of the World
marble starting line for the track at Olympia
Greek toga party with distilled wine
Contemporary streaking occured
during the 1970's (like 74' and 75').
Blue Laws
no selling alcohol on Sundays

no shopping on Sundays

this sort of stuff
European Parks
Most were estates and private preserves, etc.

Lead to the idea of Commons and Plazas.
has grown enormously.

In 15,000 years, pre-agrarian society expanded 3 times.

In 19th C. European society expanded 3 times.

In the 20th C. world pop. tripled (6.3 Billion).

In the last 12 years, 1 billion new people.
We drove the golden spike in
Child Labor Laws
1919 So the we had 8 hour days instead of 18 hour days in the 1800's.
First State Park
Yosemite 1864
Oldest State Park
Niagra Falls 1885
First National Park
1872 Yellowstone
Boston Common
1634- Commonly known as the first municipal park. 48 acres.
Boston Sand Garden
Simple idea
Early Voluntary supervision by women.
Grew into first supervised playground.
Generated first public money support for play.
New York's Early Playgrounds
Walter Vrooman

1890- 350,000 children without playground.

6,000 acres of public but used passively.

Lack of parental supervision.

Private donations.

Initiation of park systems.
Eminent Domain
Govn't can purchase your land at a fair price if the land is useful for the public.

Not always work.

People were displaced and moved within this process.
Coney Island
begain in 1895.

West Bank had people from all types of backgrounds.

John M'Kane founded it.

Prostitution occured here.
Steeple Chase

Blow Hole Theater

1907 Fire broke out.

Pavillion of fun began.

decorated with 250,000 lights.
tall white towers rose across the street.

William H. Reynolds

Human beings
Infant Incubator
Boer War Spectacle
The War Years (After 1945)
meant no tourism but the many hours of work lead to earned vacation time and extra pay.

5 Day Work Week.
5 Day Work Weeks
-More time off
-More money
-Job protection (1 wk vacation and job will be there when you get back).
-Assurance of regular raises.
President's Council on Physical Fitness established in

Began Presidential Fitness Test.
The Counter Culture
People did stuff you disagreed with.

Ex: hippies
78% of people "take less pride in work."

73% believed "the motivation to work is not as strong"

69% felt "workmanship was not as good"

63% felt "most people do not work as hard."
Trickle Down Economics
Under Reagan Years

State and county determined where $ went and not federal.
Proposition 13
In CA, ceased ability for state to raise property taxes by more than 1%.
Hammock Ammendments
"We cannot tax you for any more $ than it takes for us to have no surplus by the end of the year."

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