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Jacob Burckhardt/ Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy
in his book argues that in 14th and 15th century Italy, through the revival of ancient learning, new secular and scientific values began to supplant traditional religious beliefs. written in a period in which he said, "full, whole nature of man."
what trade-rich cities expanded to become, dominated the political and economic life of the surrounding countryside, by 15th century, had become the backers of much of Europe
Council of Ten
part of what Venice was ruled by (other part was successful merchant oligarchy with power located in 300 members of patrician senate, this anticipated and suppressed rival groups
the nobles and merchants who traditionally ruled the city, the old rich in Florence, the 1st group
popolo grosso
capitalists and bankers, "fat people", the 2nd group, newly emergent rich merchant group, began to challenge the old rich for political power in late 13th and early 14th centuries
popola minuto
"little people", lower economic class
A government or political system in which the ruler exercises absolute power
Cosimon de Medici
the wealthiest Florentine, astute salesman, controlled the city internally from behind the scenes, skillfully manipulating the constitution and influencing elections.
what Florence was governed by, a council of first 6 and later 8 members, these men were chosen from the most powerful guilds-those representing the major clothing industries and such other groups as bankers, judges, and doctors, most members loyal to Cosimon de Medici
his purpose was to maintain law and order. he was given executive, military, and judicial authority, his mandate was direct and simple: to permit, by whatever means required, the normal flow of business activity without which neither the old rich, the new rich, nor the poor of a city could long survive
military brokers who furnished mercenary forces to the Italian states during the Renaissance
the study of Latin and Greek classics and of the Church Fathers both for their own sake and to promote a rebirth of ancient norms and values
studia humantitatis
During the Renaissance a liberal arts program of study that embraced grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, philosophy, and politics
Dante/ Divine Comedy (3 books)
1265-1321, the cornerstones of Italian vernacular language, Petrarch's famous, near-contemporary
Giovanni Boccaccio/ Decameron
Petrarch's student and friend, pioneer of humanist studies, book 100 often bawdy tales told by three men and seven women in a country retreat from the plague that ravage Florence in 1348, both a stinging social commentary (especially in its expose of a sexual and economic misconduct) and a sympathetic look at human behavior
Petrarch/ Letters to the Ancient Dead
"father of humanism", left the legal profession to pursue letters and poetry, involved in Cola di Rienzo's popular revolt and 2 year reign in Rome as "tribune" of the Roman people, book fancied personal letters to Cicero, Livy, Vergil, and Horace, most famous was works written to Laura, married woman he admired from afar; his critical textual studies, elitism, and contempt for the allegedly useless learing of the Scholastics were features that many of the later humanists also shared
Baldassare Castiglioe/ Book of the Courtier
written as a practical guide for the nobility at the court of Urbino, it embodies the highest ideals of Italian humanism, it depicts the successful courtier as one who knew how to integrate knowledge of ancient languages and history with athletic, military, and musical skills, while practicing good manners and exhibiting a high moral character
Christine de Pisan/ The City of Ladies
the Italian born daughter of the physician and astologer of the French king Charles V, she received as fine an education at the French court as anyone could have; she became an expert in classical, French, and Italian languages and literature, lyric poetry to support herslef after widowed, most famous book is a chronicle of the accomplishments of the great women of history
Florentine Academy
not a formal school, an informal gathering of influential Floretine humanists devoted to the revival of the works of Plato and the Neoplatonists: Plotinus, roclus, Porphyry, and Dionysius the Areopagite
appeal lay in its flattering view of human nature, it distinuished between an eternal sphere of being and the perishable world in which humans actually lived; human reason was believed to be in the former, to have pre-existed in this pristine world and to continue and commune with it, to which the present knowledge of mathematical and moral truth bore witness
Pico Della Mirandola/ The Oration of the Dignity of Man
perhaps the most famous Renaissance statement on the nature of humankind, wrote this book as an introduction to a pretensious collection of 900 these-were intended to serve as the basis for a public debate on all of life's important topics, drew on Platonic teachings to depict humans as the only creatures in the world who possessed the freedom to be whatever they chose, able at will to rise at the height of the angels or to descend to the level of the pigs
Lorenzo Valla/ Donation of Constantine
he reveals the explosive character of the new learning; good catholic, hero to later Protestants-defense of predestination against the advocates of free will. book=fraudulent, proported to be a grant of vast territories made by the 4th century Roman emperor Constantine to the pope. did not intend the expose of this book to have the devasting force that Protestants later attributed to it, apostolic secretary in Rome under Pope
Nicolas V
civic humanism
education designed to promote humanist leadership of political and cultural life
the father of Renaissance painting, admirer of Saint Francis of Assisi, whose love of nature he shared, he painted a more natural world than his Byzantine and Gothic predessors, works filled with religious seriousness, no longer so abstract and unnatural a depiction of the world
sculptor, continued to portray the world around him more literally and naturally
Leonardo Da Vinci/ "Renaissance Man"
exhibited the Renaissance ideal of the universal person, many skills, one of the greatest painters of his time, military engineer for Ludovico il Moro in Milan, Cesare Borgia in Romagna, and the French king, Francis I; advocated scientific experimentation, dissected corpses to learn anatomy, and was an accoplished, self-taught botanist, inventive, Mona Lisa
Raphael/ The School of Athens
man of great sensitivity and kindness, apparently loved by contemporaries as much for his person as for his wrk, premature death (37), famous for his tender madonnas, best known of which are at San Sisto in Piacenza and is now in Dresden; art historians praise his fresco this famous work, a grandly portrayal of the great masters of Western philosophy, as a virtually perfect example of Renaissance technique-depicts Plato and Aristotle surrounded by the great philosophers and scientists of antiquity
Michelanglo/ David and Sistine Chapel
melcancholy genius, also excelled in a variety of arts and crafts, 18ft tall godlike sculpute of David, devotion to harmony, symmetry, and proportion, glorification of human form
1494: Treaty of Lodi
political alliance with Milan, Naples, and Florence against Venice, which was frequently joined by the Papal States, to create an internal balance of power. when a foreign country threatened Italy, however, the five formed a united front
Girolamo Savonarola
convinced most of the fearful Florentines that the French king's arrival was a long-delayed and fully justified divine vengeance on their immortality, continued to exercise virtual rile over Florence for four years after Charles's departure, moral and antipapal policies made it impossible for him to survive indefinitely , imprisoned and executed in May 1498
Pope Julius II/ "the warrior pope"
suppressed the Borgias and placed their newly conquered lands in Romagna under papal jurisdiction, known as warrior pope because he brought the Renaissance papacy to a peak of military prowess and diplomatic intrigue; assisted by allies, drove the Venetians out of Romagna, teamed up with Ferninand of Aragon and Venice to drive the French invader out of Italy-formed second Holy League in Oct 1511, then Emperor Maximillian I and Swiss.
Julius Excluded from Heaven
written by Erasmus, humorous account purported to describe the pope's unsuccessful efforts to convince Saint Peter that he was worthy o admission to heaven
1516: Concordat of Bologna
August 1516, agreement gave the French king control over the French clergy in exchange for French recognition of the pope's superiority over church councils and his right to collect annates in France, important compromise that helped keep France Catholic after the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation
Nicccolo Machiavelli: The Prince
humanist and careful student of ancient Rome, impressed by the way Roman rulers and citizens had then defended their homeland, they possessed virtu (ability to act decisively and heroically for the good of their country), held deep republican ideals, book cynical satire on the ways rulers actually did behave and not as a serious recommendation of unprincipled despotic rule
the nobility and the towns had acted with varying degrees of unity and success through evolving representative assemblies such as the English Parliament, the French Estates, the the Spanish (this), Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain rarely called it into session
French Estates General
High Middle Ages, the French version of the English Parliament, did not meet at all from 1484 to 1560
in Castile, similar to English justices of the peace and the French baliffs operating through well-drilled lieutenants; these royal ministers and agents could become closely attached to the localities they administered in the ruler's name
the royal tax on salt in France
the 10% sales tax on commercial transactions in Spain
the direct tax on the French peasantry
Jacques Coeur
largely because of the enterprise of this independent merchant banker the French developed a strong economy, diplomatic corps, and national administration during Charles VII's reign
Ferninand of Aragon/ Isabella of Castile
changed the situation of Aragon and Castile, married in 1469 despite protests from neighboring Portugal and France, both of whom foresaw the enormous power gained from the marriage, castile richer, more populous of the two, sheep-farming industry, both coutries still remained consitutionally separated- separate laws, armies, coinage, taxation and cultural traditions; together the rulers subdued their realms, secured their borders, ventured abroad militarily, and Christianized the whole of Spain, conquered Moors in Grenada, gained Naples and secured his northern borders by conquering the kingdom of Navarre, won allegiance of the Hermandad, almost total control over the Spanish church, overseas exploration
a powerful league of cities and towns that served them against stubborn landowners
Tomas de Torquemada
run Inquisition, Isabella's confessor, was a key national agency established in 1479 to monitor the activity of converted Jews and Muslims in Spain

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