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immuno cytokines


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properties of cytokines
modulate immune response
-short half life in serum
-produced by and act upon lots of cells
-many effects on single or variable cell types; redundant
-influence the ezpression and function of other cytokines
-recognized by target cell by specific receptors
what is a cytokine and how do they work?
-type I cytokines in 4 alpha-helical bundles
-found as dimers
-recognized by distinct set of receptors
-many receptors share common sub-units
how do cyto kine receptors signal?

defiency in what would show a predictable loss of cytokine response
receptors cluster on membrane
-this recruits the JAK which recriut the STAT
-these are phosphorylated and form dimers
-dimers move into nucleus and bind to target genes and initiate transcription

how does cytokine get turned off?
recruitment of comp inhibitors
what does innate immunity mean?
immediate response to infection. occurs prior to any type of antien specific response (even a secondary response)
cytokines that influence innate immunity

-TNF family!!
cytokines/receptors that lead to cell activation and proliferation (TNF and BAFF) and those that lead to cell death (FAS/fas)
the cytokine with the most immedieate response to a bacterial infection induced by LPS
two sources of TNF

-when is TNF available for export
LPS activated macrophages (most responsible)
-mast cells
-right after mast cell degranulation
TNF has two activation roles
localized signaling and systemic
4 responses from low levels of TNF at site of release
-increase expression of adhesion molecules on surface of endothelium
-upregulates killing efficiency of neutrophils and eosinophils
-increase class I protein expression
-induce other cells to produce other cytokine to augment response
4 responses for high quantities
-induces cells to make IL-1 and IL-6
-upregulates acute phase proteins by liver to increase phagocytosis
-suppresses bone marrow from dividing

made by what?

functions like what other cytokine and what does it do?
-what does it do at high levels?
-inhibited by?
made by activated macrophag/monocyte via TNF, LPS, or other IL-1

-TNF; enhances local inflammatory response (increases migration of leukocytes, promotes coagulation)
-fever, acute phase proteins, wasting
-naturally occurring proteins that bind to IL-1 receptors but dont initiate a response.
-function similar to IL-1 and TNF and requires these to be activated.
-similar action on liver.
-activates b cell diferentiation
the type I interferons
interferon alpha and Beta

~20 proteins made by many cells but mostly macrophages

-single protein made by mostly all cells
interferon functions
-induce target cells to express enzymes that interfere with rna/dna replication
-inhibit target cell from proliferating,
-upregulate expression of the class I MHC
-decrease class II
-activate NK

-produced by
produced by T and B, monocytes, and keratinocytes.
-inhibits production of many cytokines like IL-2, IL-3, IFN-y, GM-CSF and TNF
-inibitor of macrrophage activation
adaptive immunity cytokines
IL-2, IL-4, interferon-Y, IL-12
made by?
made by CD4 Tcells upon activations. acts autocrine or paracrine.
-t cell growth and differentiation factor
-increases nk killing capacity
-make by
-CD4 Th2 t cells
-mast cells
-induces IgE
-blocks activation of macrophages (anti inflamatory)
-growth factor for mast cells
-expression of adhesion receptors
-made by
-anti-viral/anti proliferative
-activated macrophages to kill phagcytosed bacteria
--upregulate NK and neutrophil
-TH0 to TH1
-who makes it
-who recieves it
-what make the maker make it
-B and monocytes
-NK and T
-TNF alpha induces monocytes to make it

-activator of NK
-increase activity of CD8 T cells
makes CD 4 TH0 into TH1
antigen+ IL-12, IFN-y, IL-2
-comment on receptor and chemokines
-what specifies response?
-recruits cells into sites
-inflammatory response
-all receptors and chemokines are the same
-specificity is expression of receptor (who makes and who recieves the chemokine)

-C kit and ligand; stem cell maintenance and expansion
-IL-3; activates bone marrow/makes mast cells
-GM CSF; neutrophil/macrophage devp
-Granulocyte CSF; makes neutrophils and eosinophils
-IL-7; B cell/T cell growth factor

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