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Ch. 3 Nature and Nurture Vocabulary


undefined, object
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refers to every nongenetic, or external, influence on our traits and behaviors.
gender schema theory
children acquire a cultural concept of what it means to be female or male and adjust their behavior accordingly.
biochemical units that make up DNA and genes.
gender role
a culturally prescribed set of behaviors for males and females.
occurs when the effects of one factor (such as heredity) depends on another factor (such as environment).
Y chromosome
the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.
a culturally prescribed set of behaviors expected of those who occupy a particular social position.
social learning theory
people learn social behavior (such as gender roles) by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.
a process in which the genetic material of a person, a plant or an animal changes in structure when it is passed on to children, causing different phycical characteristics to develop.
fraternal twins
develop from two separate eggs fertilized by different sperrn and therefore are no more genetically similar than ordinary siblings.
the complete instructions for making an organism - consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; they are segments of the DNA molecules capable of synthesizing a protein.
identical twins
develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two and therefore are genetically identical.
the principal male sex hormone. During prenatal development, it stimulates the development of the external male sex organs.
threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes
physical or verbal behavior that is intended to hurt or harm someone.
personal space
personal space-the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies.
the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The ___________ of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
understood social prescriptions, or rules, for accepted and expected behavior.
An inherited characteristic that increases in a population because it provides a survival or reproductive advantage.
evolutionary psychology
the study of evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection.
the acquisition of a traditional feminine or masculine gender role.
sense of "we". priorities are given to a certain group. One's identity is defined accordingly
gender identity
one's personal sense of being male or female.
variations in ideas, fashions, and innovations passed from one person to another that cause rapid cultural mutations.
molecular genetics
the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes.
(deoxyribonucleic acid) is a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
natural selection
the principle that among the range of inherited trait variations - those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
a person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity.
Giving priority to one's own goals over group and defining one's identity in terms of personal sttributes rather than group identification.
X Chromosome
the sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have two of these chromosomes; males have one. One of these chromosome from each parent produces a female child.
the biologically and socially influenced characteristic by which people define male and female.
behavior genetics
the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and enviromental influences on behavior.
Charles Darwin
renowned naturalist and thinker associated with the theory of evolution by natural selection

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