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AP Euro first semester final


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Catherine the Great
Catherine deposed her husband Peter III and became empress of Russia,she imported Western culture to Russia, supported the philosophers, and introduced limited legal and penal reforms to her adoptedcountry, under catharine russia expanded alot
Ulrich Zwingli
Ulrich Zwingli, a Swiss priest, joined the Reformation in 1519, denouncing indulgences, monasticism, and celibacy. Catholics,Zwinglians along with Lutherans and Calvinists recognized the doctrine of separation of church and state as pointing toward a secular society, and they persecuted Anabaptists.
Pragmatic Sanction
In France Charles VII created the first royal army, set up new taxes on salt and land, and allowed middle class men to influence his bureaucracy. He also asserted his right to appoint bishops in the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges
Imanauel Kant
profersor in East prussia and believed that Fred the great was an enlightened monarch, and that thinkers should be able to excersise their reason publicly
members of the Society of Jesus, founded by Ignatius Loyola and approved by the papacy in 1540, whose goal was the spread of the Roman Catholic faith through humanist schools and missionary activity; it was not founded to oppose the Reformation.
Isaac Newton
English mathematician and physicist developed the law of gravitation and the three laws of motion (1642-1727)
Laura Cereta
was a humanist and a prodigy (1469-1499)
putting-out system
term used to describe the 18 th century rural industry.
Great Fear
the fear of vagabonds and outlaws that seized the countryside and fanned the flames of rebellion
a division, or split, in church leadership (1377-1418) when there were two, then three, popes.
Time of Troubles(Russia)
after ivan IV and his sons death it increased the pressure on the peasants to pay for his wars it led to a breakdown (the Time of Troubles, 1598-1613).
Third Estate
majority of the french people(24mil), wealthy merchants to serfs&landless peasants, the bourgeosie, the saus-culotts, and peasants
Polish Scientist who believed that the sun was the center of the universe, not the Earth and developed a model of sun and planets
was a strong and respected leader in french eyes,brought and end to french revolution, sold louisiana territory to america after he got it back from spain ...see print out
a group contesting control of the National Convention in France named after a department in southwestern France.
Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell was Lord Protector of England for much of the 1650s, ruling in place of the country's traditional monarchy.
Reign of Terror (1793-1794)
Robespierre used revolutionary terror to solidify the home front, in special courts rebels and enemies of the nation were tried for political crimes.
Martin Luther
developed lutheranism...see print out
John Wesley
Influenced by Pietism, John Wesley (1703-1791) propagandized Methodism among the English populace,and was involved with the protastant revivial
St. Bartholomews Day massacre
Begun 24 August 1572 and extending over several weeks, the most violent series of fights between French Catholics and Protestants, each side wanted control over the weak French government.
system of economic regulations aimed at increasing the power of the state. or prevailing economic theory of European nations in 16 th and 17 th centuries. It rested on the premise that a nations power and wealth were determined by its supply of precious metal which were to be acquired by increasing exports (paid for with gold) and reducing imports to achieve domestic self-sufficiency; mercantilism remained the dominant theory until the Industrial Revelation and articulation of theory of laissez faire.
a Portuguese invented small light, the masted sailing ship which held more cargo and was more manoverable
War of Spanish Succession
After the death of King Charles II of Spain in 1700 passed the Spanish throne to Louis XIV's grandson, England, Holland, Austria, and Prussia united against France to preserve the European balance of power and check French expansion in the Americas, Asia, and Africa. This conflict became known as the War of the Spanish Succession.
Joan of Arc
French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king, she was later tried for heresy and burned at the stake
Battle Crécy
the 1346 battle in northern France where English long-bowmen won decisive victory over the French.
cottage industry
domestic industry, a stage of rural industrial development with wage workers and hand tools that necessarily preceded the emergence of large-scale factory industry.
political figure whose belief was that rulers should be feared than loved, wrote The Prince,In The Prince (1513), he also argued that politics could not follow simple rules of virtue and morality—that it ought in fact to be studied as a science.
Edict of Nantes (1598)
document issued by Henry IV of France granting liberty of conscience and of public worship to Calvinists in 150 towns; it helped restore peace in France.
Olympe de Gouges
A proponent of democracy, she demanded the same rights for French women that French men were demanding for themselves. In her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen (1791), she challenged the practice of male authority and the notion of male-female inequality. She lost her life to the guillotine due to her revolutionary ideas.
Adam Smith
(1723-1790) Scottish professor of philosophy-developed the general idea of freedom of enterprise in foreign trade-wrote Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations which established the basis for modern economics-highly critical of 18th century mercantilism
Copernican hypothesis
the idea that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the universe; this had enormous scientific and religious implications.
John Calvin
French humanist whose theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans. Developed Calvinism at Geneva.
The Seven Years War(1756-1763)
The Seven Years' War ended with British winning full control over India and North America.
Thirty Years War
Protestant rebellion against the Holy Roman Empire ...see print out
Rising silver exports in the eighteenth century helped create a class of wealthy Creole (American-born white) merchants.Creole estate owners dominated much of the peasant population through holding people as servants to pay off a debt, really a form of serfdom.
Joan of Arc
French peasant girl who raised the (English) siege of Orleans (1429), which marked the turning point in the Hundred Years War.
a scientist..see print out
Star Chamber
a division of the English royal council, a court that used Roman legal procedures to curb real or potential threats from the nobility, the court so called because there were stars painted on the ceiling of the chamber in which the court sat.
general name given to several Protestant groups who believed that only adults could make an informed decision about baptism (and thus entry into the Christian community) and who therefore refused to have their children baptized. Because of their belief in pacifism and that the Christian could not participate in civil affairs (by implication the separation of church and state) Luther, Calvin, and Catholics condemned and persecuted them.
Spanish Armada (1588)
fleet sent by Philip II of Spain against England, In his mind a religious crusade against Protestantism. Weather and the English fleet defeated it.
Hundred Years' War
A series of conflicts between England and France...see print out
a general word for the new learning the critical study of Latin and Greek literature, with the goal of realized human potential. and/or another basic feature of the Italian renaissance stressing personality, uniqueness, genius, self-consciousness

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