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Panic of 1837
cause by issueing of excess paper money which led to inflation
Russell Conwell
an American Baptist minister, lawyer, writer, and outstanding orator. He is best remembered as the founder and first president of Temple University in Philadelphia Pennsylvania, and for his lecture and book Acres of Diamonds. He was born in South Worthington, Massachusetts. He was buried in Founder's Garden at Temple University
Samuel Slater
an early American industrialist popularly known as the "Founder of the American Industrial Revolution".
Judiciary Act, 1801
an effort by the Federalist majority in Congress to prolong its control of the federal judiciary before the end of President John Adams' term.The Act reduced the number of seats on the Supreme Court from six to five, effective upon the next vacancy in the Court. No such vacancy occurred during the brief period the Act was in effect, so that the size of the Court remained unchanged. created resentment towards themselves from the DR's
a political faction of the United States Republican Party that existed in the late 19th century. The Half-Breeds were a moderate-wing group, and they were the opponents of the Stalwarts, the other main faction of the Republican Party. The main issue that separated the Stalwarts and the Half-Breeds was political patronage. The Stalwarts were in favor of political machines and spoils system-style patronage, while the Half-Breeds, led by Maine senator James G. Blaine, were in favor of civil service reform
sand creek
was an incident in the Indian Wars of the United States that occurred on November 29, 1864, when Colorado Territory militia attacked and destroyed a village of Cheyenne and Arapaho encamped on the eastern plains.
Ten Percent oath
It required 10% of white males in each state to swear he had never borne arms against the Union or supported the Confederacy — that is, he had "never voluntarily borne arms against the United States," had "voluntarily" given "no aid, countenance, counsel or encouragement" to persons in rebellion and had exercised or attempted to exercise the functions of no office under the Confederacy.
Hudson River School
an art movement of landscape painters whose aesthetic vision was influenced by romanticism
Great Awakening
first truly american movement. begun by ohnathon edwards and other newlights who wanted more interesting sermons; resulted in baptist church
John D Rockefeller
an American industrialist and philanthropist. Rockefeller revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy. In 1870, Rockefeller founded the Standard Oil Company and ran it until he retired in the late 1890s. He kept his stock and as gasoline grew in importance, his wealth soared and he became the world's richest man and first U.S. dollar billionaire, and is often regarded as the richest person in history
Panic of 1857
sudden downturn in the economy of the United States that occurred in 1857. The downturn was brief and the recovery strong, so that the impact was small. Over 5,000 businesses failed within a year. Unemployment was accompanied by protest meetings in urban areas.
Fort Sumter, 1861
a Third System masonry coastal fortification located in Charleston harbor, South Carolina, was named after General Thomas Sumter. The fort is best known as the site where the shots initiating the American Civil War were fired, at the Battle of Fort Sumter.
Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo, 1848
the peace treaty, largely dictated by the United States[1][2] to the interim government of a militarily occupied Mexico, that ended the Mexican-American War (1846-1848). The treaty provided for the Mexican Cession
Webster-Hayne debate, 1830
heated speeches regarding the protective tariffs. called for the temporary suspension of further land surveying until land alreayd on the market was sold
Underground Railroad
loosely organized system for helping slave escape to areas or safety. a symbol of freedom
Phillip Armour
an American businessman who founded Armour and Company, the giant American meatpacking firm.
john mitchell
elected as a Jacksonian to the Nineteenth and Twentieth Congresses. After his time in congress, Mitchell surveyed proposed canal routes between the Susquehanna and Potomac Rivers in 1826. He was an engineer on the Erie extension in 1827 and canal commissioner in 1829. He moved to Bridgewater, Pennsylvania, in 1842 and engaged in civil engineering and iron manufacturing. He was member of the canal survey commission from 1845 until his death in Bridgewater in 1849. Interment in Old Beaver Cemetery.
Streetcar Cities
a community whose growth and development was strongly shaped by the use of streetcar lines as a primary means of transportation. The earliest suburbs were served by horsecars, but by the late 1800s cable cars and electric streetcars, or trams, were used, allowing residences to be built further away from the urban core of a city. Streetcar suburbs, usually called additions or extensions at the time, were the forerunner of today's suburbs in the United States and Canada.
jacob coxy
sometimes known as General Coxey) (born April 16, 1854 in Selinsgrove, Pennsylvania; died May 18, 1951) of Massillon, Ohio, was a socialist American politician, who ran for elective office several times in Ohio.
Mayflower compact, 1620
establishes self government and rule of the majority. the people of maryland agree to make the laws. first written constituion in America
eastman kodak
Kodak's origins rest with Eastman Dry Plate Company, founded by inventor George Eastman and businessman Henry Strong in Rochester, New York in 1880. The Eastman Dry Plate Company was responsible for the first cameras suitable for nonexpert use. The Kodak company attained its name from the first simple roll film cameras produced by Eastman Dry Plate Company, known as the "Kodak" in its product line. The cameras proved such an enormous success that the word Kodak was incorporated into the company name. George Eastman registered the trademark Kodak on September 4, 1888. The Eastman Kodak Company was founded in 1892.[1] The company is incorporated in New Jersey but has its offices in Rochester, New York.[2] George Eastman, Kodak's founder, coined the advertising slogan, "You press the button, we do the rest."[3]
Patrick Henry
convinced the virginia house of burgesses to fight in a revolutions with his speech of "give me liberty or give me death"
Election of 1860
set the stage for the American Civil War. The nation had been divided throughout most of the 1850s on questions of states' rights and slavery in the territories. In 1860 this issue finally came to a head, fracturing the formerly dominant Democratic Party into Southern and Northern factions and bringing Abraham Lincoln and the Republican Party to power without the support of a single Southern State.
Cornelius Venderbilt
an American entrepreneur who built his wealth in shipping and railroads and was the patriarch of the Vanderbilt family.
oliver H Kelley
considered the "Father" of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry (more commonly known as "The Grange"). a fraternal organization for American farmers that encouraged farm families to band together for their common economic and political good.
Caroline incident, 1837
a series of events beginning in 1837 that strained relations between the United States and Britain
Yellow Dog Contract
an agreement between an employer and an employee in which the employee agrees, as a condition of employment, not to be a member of a labor union. In the U.S.such contracts were, until the 1930s, widely used by employers to prevent the formation of unions, most often by permitting employers to take legal action against union organizers. In 1932, yellow-dog contracts were outlawed in the United States under the Norris-LaGuardia Act.
upton sinclair
a prolific American author who wrote over 90 books in many genres and was widely considered to be one of the best investigators, advocating socialist views and supporting anarchist causes. He achieved considerable popularity in the first half of the 20th century. He gained particular fame for his 1906 novel The Jungle, which dealt with conditions in the U.S. meat packing industry and caused a public uproar that partly contributed to the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat Inspection Act in 1906.
Free-soil party
formed mainly in opposition to slavery. eventually became the new republican party
Currency act, 1764
prohibited the American colonies from issuing paper currency of any form. Additionally, Britain had coined almost no silver or copper between 1760 and 1816 and discouraged any American attempts to do so.
bland-allison act, 1878
a United States federal law enacted in response to the Fourth Coinage Act (called by opponents "the Crime of 1873") demonetizing silver. Representative Richard P. Bland of Missouri and Senator William Allison of Iowa co-authored a bill that would re-allow the coinage of silver. It had the following provisions:The U.S. Treasury would purchase quantities of bullion valued between $2 million and $4 million per month. The silver would be purchased at market prices, not at a predetermined ratio tied to the value of gold. The silver would be used to make coins at ratio of 16:1 to gold. In other words, 16 ounces of silver would be equivalent to one ounce of gold, regardless of the metals' respective market values.
Stono Rebellion, 1739
one of the earliest known organized acts of rebellion against slavery within the boundaries of the present United States. On September 9, 1739, South Carolina slaves gathered at the Stono River (for which the rebellion is named) to plan an armed march for freedom.
17th amendment, 1913
first put into effect for the election of 1914. It amends Article 1 Section 3 of the Constitution to provide for the direct election of Senators by the people of a state rather than their election or appointment by a state legislature. Also, it allows the governor or executive authority of each state, if authorized by that state's legislature, to appoint a senator in the event of an opening, until an election occurs. It was passed and ratified during the Progressive Era.
seperation of powers
3 braches (executive, judiciary, legislative) which share the power of the country
Eugene V. Debs
an American labor and political leader, one of the founders of the International Labor Union and the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), as well as five-time Socialist Party of America candidate for President of the United States. [1]
Lexington and concord, 1775
at lexington, 8 colonists were killedwhen the brittish marched off of their pathand an anonymous shot is fired. in concord, soldiers meet at bridge and the colonists cause 300 brittish casualties frocing brittish to retreat. give colonists hope
northern securities case
a large United States railroad trust formed in 1902 by E. H. Harriman, James J. Hill, J.P. Morgan, J. D. Rockefeller, and their associates. The company controlled the Northern Pacific Railway, Great Northern Railway, Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad, and other associated lines. The company was sued under the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 by President Theodore Roosevelt, one of the first anti-trust cases filed against corporate interests instead of labor
the first of two stages in a specific process for a legislative body to remove a government official without that official's agreement. very rare and often misunderstood
Non-Intercourse act, 1809
replaced the embargo act and stated that americans culd export goods to all countries except Brittish and France. didn't hurt Britain as expected
18th amendment, 1919
established Prohibition in the United States. Ratified on January 16, 1919, it is notable as the only amendment to the United States Constitution that has been repealed (by the Twenty-first Amendment).
john muir
one of the first modern preservationists. His letters, essays, and books telling of his adventures in nature, and wildlife, especially in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, were read by millions and are still popular today. His direct activism helped to save the Yosemite Valley and other wilderness areas. The Sierra Club, which he founded, is now one of the most important conservation organizations in the United States. His writings and philosophy strongly influenced the formation of the modern environmental movement.
"we the people..." states the six goals of the independent union
Prigg v. Pennsylvania, 1842
a United States Supreme Court case in which the court held that Federal law is superior to State law, and overturned the conviction of Edward Prigg as a result.
farmer's alliance
an organized agrarian economic movement amongst U.S. farmers that flourished in the 1880s. First formed in 1876 in Lampasas, Texas, the Alliance was designed to promote higher commodity prices through collective action by groups of individual farmers. The movement was strongest in the South and Great Plains, and was widely popular before it was destroyed by the power of commodity brokers. Despite its failure, it is regarded as the precursor to the United States Populist Party, which grew out of the ashes of the Alliance in 1889.
elastic clause
article 1, section 8, clause 18. gives congress powers which are "necessary and proper" and stretches their power over time
a vocal group of Democrats in the North (see also Union (American Civil War)) who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates.
Army of the Potomac
the major Union Army in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War
Peggy O'Neal-Eaton affair
scandal involving members of President Andrew Jackson's Cabinet. some members resigned
Catherine Beecher
renown for her forthright opinions on women's education and her support of adding kindergarten to chiildrens' education
Tariff of abominations, 1828
a protective tariff which was an attempt to sabotage Adams. caused the prices of European products to increase
underwood-simmons tariff, 1913
imposed the first federal income tax following the ratification of the Sixteenth Amendment and lowered basic tariff rates from 40% to 25%, well below the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act of 1909. It was signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson on October 3, 1913, and was sponsored by Alabama Representative Oscar Underwood.
a form of obstruction in a legislature or other decision-making body. An attempt is made to infinitely extend debate upon a proposal in order to delay the progress or completely prevent a vote on the proposal taking place.
William Sylvis
president of the Iron Molders International Union and, in 1868, president of the NLU, believed that unionization was important, but by itself it could not solve the problem of poverty. He declared,
Bear Flag Revolt
U.S. Army Major John C. Frémont had spread rumors of impending action against settlers by the Mexican government and encouraged rebellion. A group of thirty-three men strode into the Sonoma town center, and raised a flag with a bear and star on it (the "Bear Flag") to symbolize a new California Republic, independent from Mexico. This use of the flag led these actions to be dubbed the "Bear Flag Revolt."
Settlement House Movement
was a conflagration that burned from Sunday October 8 to early Tuesday October 10, 1871, killing hundreds and destroying about four square miles in Chicago, Illinois. Though the fire was one of the largest U.S. disasters of the 19th century, the rebuilding that began almost immediately spurred Chicago's development into one of the most populous and economically important American and international cities.
Pullman Strike, 1894
occurred when 4,000 Pullman Palace Car Company workers reacted to a 28% wage cut by going on a wildcat strike in Illinois on May 11, 1894, bringing traffic west of Chicago to a halt.
Frederick Douglass
an American abolitionist, editor, orator, author, statesman and reformer. Called "The Sage of Anacostia" and "The Lion of Anacostia", Douglass was one of the most prominent figures in African American history and a formidable public presence. He was a firm believer in the equality of all people, whether black, female, American Indian, or recent immigrant.
wealthy and educated men led by hamilton who advocated fro a strong central government
stamp act, 1765
placed tax on all legal papers. paid for colonial defense. colonists tarred and featherd tax collectores.
Old Immigrants
came from someone who came to the United States from Northern or Western Europe (i.e. Britain, France, Germany, Ireland or Scandinavia) during the first wave of immigration in the history of the independent US (1776-1890). Many Irish left Ireland due to the Irish Potato Famine, whereas Germans fled from their small, oppressive feudal monarchies after the revolutions of 1848 failed. Many of the Old Immigrants were attracted to America because of the availability of free land, and the promise of personal or religious freedom. As most governments of Europe were dominated by the upper class nobility, the common man felt that he had little or even no say in the government of his native soil. As a result many of them came seeking a political voice or freedom from an oppressive government.
land ordinance of 1787
between the United States and Spain guaranteed Spain's exclusive right to navigate the Mississippi River for 30 years. It also opened Spain's European and West Indian seaports to American shipping. However, the Treaty was not ratified under the Articles of ConfederationLand was to be systematically surveyed into square "townships", six miles (9.656 km) on a side. Each of these townships was sub-divided into thirty-six "sections" of one square mile (2.59 km²) or 640 acres. These sections could then be further subdivided for sale to settlers and land speculators
Andrew Carnegie
was a Scottish-born American industrialist, businessman, a major philanthropist, and the founder of Pittsburgh's Carnegie Steel Company which later became U.S. Steel.
populist party, 1892
also known as the People's Party) was a relatively short-lived political party in the United States in the late 19th century. It flourished particularly among western farmers, based largely on its opposition to the gold standard. Although the party did not remain a lasting feature of the political landscape, many of its terms have. The very term "populist" has since become a generic term in U.S. politics for politics which appeals to the common in opposition to established interests.
Topeka constitution
effort to establish a state constitution in kansas. banned slavery. led to bleeding kansas
War Hawks
made up the 13th congress. eager and ready to go to war. made the war of 1812 happen
Albert Gallatin
"Watchdog of the treasury" as good as hamilton. agreed with jefferson that the national debt was a burden and reduced the debt sustancially while balancing the budget
The Liberator
radical abolitionist newpaper. founded by william llyod garrison
The Gospel of Wealth
an essay written by Andrew Carnegie in 1889 that described the responsibility of philanthropy by the new upper class of self-made rich. The central thesis of Carnegie's essay was the peril of allowing large sums of money to be passed into the hands of persons or organizations ill-equipped mentally or emotionally to cope with them. As a result, the wealthy entrepreneur must assume the responsibility of distributing his fortune in a way that it will be put to good use, and not wasted on frivolous expenditure. The very existence of poverty in a capitalistic society could be negated by wealthy philanthropic businessmen and women.
Thommas Nast
a famous German-American caricaturist and editorial cartoonist in the 19th century and is considered to be the father of American political cartooning
Indian Intercourse act, 1834
regulated commerce between indians and UA citizens. licensed trading posts where indians were permitted to trade their goods
Nullification ordinance, 1832
declared the tariff of 1828 null and void within the state borders of SC. began the nullification crisis
Daniel Webster
a federalist who opposed James Maddison administration. Was not a member of the Hartford Convention
Brigham Young
a leader in the Latter Day Saint movement and was the president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints from 1847 until his death. Young was also the first governor of the Utah Territory, United States, and was married to 52 women.
Border States
refers to the five slave states of Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Missouri, and West Virginia which bordered a free state and aligned with the Union during the American Civil War
Edwin Stanton
an American lawyer, politician, United States Attorney General in 1860-61 and Secretary of War through most of the American Civil War and Reconstruction era.
JP Morgan
an American financier, banker, philanthropist, and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time.
pure food and drug act, 1906
a United States federal law that provided for federal inspection of meat products, and forbade the manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated food products or poisonous patent medicines. The Act arose due to public education and exposées from authors such as Upton Sinclair and Samuel Hopkins Adams, social activist Florence Kelley, researcher Harvey W. Wiley, and President Theodore Roosevelt.
Loco Focos
a radical faciton of the democratic party
Pendleton Act, 1883
an 1883 United States federal law that established the United States Civil Service Commission, which placed most federal employees on the merit system and marked the end of the so-called "spoils system." Drafted during the Chester A. Arthur administration, the Pendleton Act served as a response to President James Garfield's assassination by a disappointed office seeker.
Great Railroad Strike, 1877
began on July 14 in Martinsburg, West Virginia, United States and ended some 45 days later after it was put down by local and state militias, as well as by federal troops.
Henry Clay Frick
industrialist; Frick and Carnegie's partnership came to an end over actions taken in response to the Homestead Steel Strike, an 1892 labor strike at the Homestead Works of the Carnegie Steel Company. At Homestead, striking workers had locked the company out of the factory and surrounded it with pickets, some of whom were armed. Frick was known for his anti-union policy and as negotiations were still taking place he ordered the construction of a solid board fence topped with barbed wire around mill property.
Frances C. Lowell
founded the Boston Associates which established the first textile mill in America
Sumner-Brooks affair, 1856
sumner delievered a passionate speech against slavery. brooks (his cousin) beat him almost to death
Ostend Manifesto
a widely circulated magazine of "agricultural, commercial, and industrial progress and resource" in the American South during the middle of the 19th century. It bore the name of its first editor, James Dunwoody Brownson DeBow. didn't want cuba to become an independent black nation
Paxton Boys
regarding indian affairs, they thought felt that the government of colonial Pennsylvania was negligent in providing them with protection, and so decided to take matters into their own hands.
german mersianaries hired by brittish to go to America. clear to colonists that brittain was prepairing to fight
Hayes-Tilden, 1876
the Democratic candidate for the U.S. presidency in the disputed election of 1876, the most controversial American election of the 19th century. A political reformer, he was a Bourbon Democrat who worked closely with the New York City business community, led the fight against the corruption of Tammany Hall, and fought to keep taxes low.
On Origin of Species, 1859
introduced the theory that populations evolve over the course of generations through a process of natural selection. It was controversial because it contradicted religious beliefs which underlay the then current theories of biology. Darwin's book was the culmination of evidence he had accumulated on the voyage of the Beagle in the 1830s and expanded through continuing investigations and experiments since his return
Alexander Graham Bell
an eminent scientist, inventor and innovator. Most often associated with the invention of the telephone, Bell was also called "the father of the deaf".[1] His father, grandfather and brother had all been associated with work on elocution and speech, and both his mother and wife were deaf, profoundly influencing Bell's life's work.[2] His research on hearing and speech further led him to experiment with hearing devices that eventually culminated in Bell being awarded the first U.S. patent for the invention of the telephone in 1876.[3]
Samuel Gompers
an American labor union leader and a key figure in American labor history. Gompers founded the American Federation of Labor (AFL) and held the position as president of the organization for all but one year from 1886 until his death in 1924. He promoted harmony among the different craft unions that comprised the AFL, and opposed industrial unionism.
Robert Fulton
a U.S. engineer and inventor who is widely credited with developing the first commercially successful steam-powered steamboat. He also designed a new type of a steam warship. In 1800 he was commissioned by Napoleon Bonaparte to design Nautilus, which was the first practical submarine in history.[
first continental congress, 1774
met in philly (ut was illegal in MA) boycotted brittish goods until coercive acts were lifted. sent letters of invitation to other brittish territories, and sent grievences to king george. brought colonies together for a common cause.
XYZ affair, 1797
americans went to meet with french ambassador. they asked americnas to pa first but they refused and left. hurt franco-american alliance abd put america in a position to bargain
Haymarket Riot, 1886
began as a rally in Chicago, which became violent and was followed by internationally publicized legal proceedings. An unknown person threw a bomb at police as they marched to disperse a public meeting in support of striking workers. The bomb blast and ensuing gunfire resulted in the deaths of seven police officers and an unknown number of civilians. Eight anarchists were tried and convicted for murder.
Dartmouth college v. woodward, 1819
NH wanted a new charter. court says that all rule of federal power must be obeyed
marqui de lafayette and baron von steuben
frenchman who helped washington by becoming his advisor before the french offered help. man pretending to be a prussian drill masdter who trained colonial army during the winter at velley forge
Charles Darwin
an English naturalist.[I] After becoming eminent among scientists for his field work and inquiries into geology, he proposed and provided scientific evidence that all species of life have evolved over time from one or a few common ancestors through the process of natural selection.[1] The fact that evolution occurs became accepted by the scientific community and the general public in his lifetime, while his theory of natural selection came to be widely seen as the primary explanation of the process of evolution in the 1930s
boston tea party, 1773
colonists dress as indians and dump 3 ships full of tea into the harbor. led by sons of liberty; result in the intolerable acts
Democracy in America, 1832
written by a frenchman about why a represntative democracy succeeded in America yet failed in so many other places
Comstock Law, 1873
a United States federal law that made it illegal to send any "obscene, lewd, and/or lascivious" materials through the mail, including contraceptive devices and information. In addition to banning contraceptives, this act also banned the distribution of information on abortion for educational purposes following the ideal of "Hear no Evil, See no Evil".
the act of withdrawing from an organization, union, or political entity. It is not to be confused with succession, the act of following in order or sequence. Typically there is a strong issue difference that drives the withdrawal. Though the term is often associated with full civil war, there are different degrees of secession, some as minor as a particular neighborhood seeking to become a separate municipality from a larger city, while still maintaining greater local or national ties.
Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882
a United States federal law passed on May 6, 1882, following 1880 revisions to the Burlingame Treaty of 1868. Those revisions allowed the U.S. to suspend immigration, and Congress subsequently acted quickly to implement the suspension of Chinese immigration, a ban that lasted over 60 years.
Crop-lien system
became popular after the civil war. a way for farmers to get credit. After the crop was harvested they would use it to pay back their loan. This is different from sharecropping
valley forge, 1777-1778
during the winter, baron von steuben trained washinton's army. 10000 entered, abd 6000 survived ready to fight and win. turning point of the war
square deal
the promotion of antitrust suits. During his administration, the federal government initiated actions against 44 major corporations. He argued that some "bad" trusts had to be curbed, and "good" ones encouraged and that executive agencies ought to have discretion in picking out which were "good" and which were "bad." As such, Roosevelt pushed for the courts, which had been guided by a clearly delineated standard up to that point, to yield to the wishes of the executive branch on all subsequent anti-trust suits.. teddy roosevelt, neither side was totally pleased of upset
Stamp act congress, 1765
first successful colonial congress. sent 13th article to king george. brought colonies together
Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge, 1837
settled a dispute over the constitutional clause regarding the obligation of contract
Compromise tariff of 1833
proposed by Henry Clay and Calhoun to gradually reduce rates over a period of 10 years
payne-aldrich tariff, 1909
began in the House of Representatives as a bill lowering certain tariffs on goods entering the United States. By the time it ran through the Senate, there had been tacked on so many amendments to the original bill that it raised many tariff standings. 650 tariff schedules were lowered, 220 raised, and 1,150 left unchanged. This greatly angered Progressives, who were beginning to stop supporting President William Howard Taft. The debate over the tariff split the Republican party into Progressives and Old Guard and, because of the split votes in most states, resulted in the eventual presidency of Democrat Woodrow Wilson, who was elected in 1912.
Harriet Tubman
born into slavery and escaped to philadelphia. one of the most successful conductors of the underground railroad
American Federaiton of Labor
one of the first federations of labor unions in the United States. It was founded in Columbus, Ohio in 1886 by Samuel Gompers as a reorganization of its predecessor, the Federation of Organized Trades and Labor Unions. Gompers was the president of the AFL until his death in 1924.
federalist papers
85 essays written by Hamilton which discussed the importantce of a strong central government. serve as a primary source for interpretation of the Constitution, as they outline the philosophy and motivation of the proposed system of government.
Compromise of 1877
an informal, unwritten deal that settled the disputed 1876 U.S. Presidential election. Through it, Republican Rutherford B. Hayes was awarded the White House over Democrat Samuel J. Tilden on the understanding that Hayes would remove the federal troops that were propping up Republican state governments in South Carolina, Florida and Louisiana
Jim Crow Laws
state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965. They mandated "separate but equal" status for black Americans. In reality, this led to treatment and accommodations that were almost always inferior to those provided white Americans.
federal trade comission, 1914
an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act. Its principal mission is the promotion of "consumer protection" and the elimination and prevention of what regulators perceive to be "anti-competitive" business practices.
Corrupt Bargain
in the election of 1824, no candidate won majority so the vote went to the house. henry clay (speaker of the house) convinced congress to select adams instead of jackson so that adams would make clay secretary of state
the opposite of inflation. Deflation is the loss of money in the available money supply. For economists especially, the term has been and is sometimes used to refer to a decrease in the size of the money supply (as a proximate cause of the decrease in the general price level). The latter is now more often referred to as a 'contraction' of the money supply. During deflation the demand for liquidity goes up, in preference to goods or interest. During deflation the purchasing power of money increases.
booker t washington
an American educator, author and leader of the African American community. He was freed from slavery as a child, gained an education, and as a young man was appointed to lead a teachers' college for blacks. From this position of leadership he rose into a nationally prominent role as spokesman for African Americans
philander C knox
an American lawyer and politician who served as Attorney General and U.S. Senator and was Secretary of State from 1909-1913.
New Immigrants
unskilled workers who came from southern and eastern europe, asia, mexico, and canada
Morrill Tariff Act, 1861
a protective tariff bill passed by the U.S. Congress in early 1861. The act is informally named after its sponsor, Rep. Justin Morrill of Vermont, who designed the bill around recommendations by Pennsylvania economist Henry C. Carey. It was signed into law by Democratic president, James Buchanan of Pennsylvania, where support for higher tariffs to protect the iron industry was strong. It
Peace of Paris, 1763
brittain recieved all french holdings in America, as well as florida. spanish recieve louisiana and new orleans. Ends french and indian war
tom johnson
an American politician of the Democratic Party from the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He headed relief efforts after the Johnstown, Pennsylvania floods of 1889, was a U.S. Representative from 1891-1895 and the 35th mayor of Cleveland, Ohio between 1901 and 1909. In 1903, he was the Democratic nominee for Governor of Ohio. Johnson's brother, Albert, was the financial backer and organizer of the Players League, a one-year experimental major baseball league which sought to treat players as partners, rather than laborers.
Gustavus Swift
founded a meat-packing empire in the Midwest during the late 19th century, over which he presided until his death. He is credited with the development of the first practical ice-cooled railroad car which allowed his company to ship dressed meats to all parts of the country and even abroad, which ushered in the "era of cheap beef
Robert Livingston
an american minister who helped in the negotiations or the louisianna purchase
William Bradford
leader of the separatist settlers of the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts, and was elected thirty times to be the Governor
John Deere
an American blacksmith and manufacturer who founded Deere & Company— the largest agricultural and construction equipment manufacturers in the world.
Social Darwinism
the idea that Charles Darwin's theory can be extended and applied to the social domain, i.e. that just as competition between individual organisms drives biological evolutionary change (speciation) through the survival of the fittest, competition between individuals, groups, nations or ideas drives social evolution in human societies.
United States v. EC Knight Co, 1895
was the first United States government action to limit cartels and monopolies. It is the oldest of all federal U.S. antitrust laws.
Freeport Doctrine
articulated by Stephen A. Douglas at the second of the Lincoln-Douglas debates on August 27, 1858, in Freeport, Illinois. Lincoln tried to force Douglas to choose between the principle of popular sovereignty proposed by the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the United States Supreme Court case of Dred Scott v. Sanford, which stated that slavery could not legally be excluded from the territories
three-fifths compromie
for every five slaves in any state, three are couted for representation
anti-federalists, headed by Jackosn, who followed southern/rural ideals and focused on individual and states rights
hepburn act, 1906
gave the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) the power to set maximum railroad rates and led to the discontinuation of free passes to loyal shippers. In addition, the ICC could view the railroads' financial records, a task simplified by standardized bookkeeping systems. For any railroad that resisted, the ICC's conditions would remain in effect until the outcome of litigation said otherwise. By the Hepburn Act, the ICC's authority was extended to cover bridges, terminals, ferries, sleeping cars, express companies and oil pipelines.
Maryland toleration act
allowed freedom of worship for all Christians in Maryland. did not protect rghts of other religions
John C. Breckinridge
a lawyer, U.S. Representative, Senator from Kentucky, Vice President of the United States, Southern Democratic candidate for President in 1860, a Confederate general in the American Civil War, and the last Confederate Secretary of War. To date, Breckinridge is the youngest vice president in U.S. history
a person who works despite an ongoing strike. Strikebreakers are usually individuals who are not employed by the company prior to the trade union dispute, but rather hired prior to or during the strike to keep production or services going. Strikebreakers may also be workers who cross picket lines and keep working
Carrie CHapman Catt
a woman's suffrage leader. She was elected president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) twice; her first term was from 1900 to 1904 and her second term was from 1915 to 1920. Her second term coincided with the climax of the woman suffrage movement in the U.S., and culminated in the adoption of the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1920. NAWSA was by far the largest organization working for woman suffrage in the U.S.
tea act, 1773
brittish east india company is on verge of bankrupcy and lowers the price of tea. see as an act to end smuggling. results in the boston tea party
William Graham Sumner
an American academic and professor at Yale College. For many years he had a reputation as one of the most influential teachers there. He was a polymath with numerous books and essays on American history, economic history, political theory, sociology, and anthropology.
The coercive of intolerable acts, 1774
result of the boston tea party. MA could not hold public meetingsand they had to pay for all of the tea in the harbor
Iron Act
was one of the legislative measures introduced by the British Parliament, seeking to restrict manufacturing activities in British colonies, particularly in north America, and encourage manufacture to take place in Great Britain.
Daniel Shays, 1787
poor farmers from MA could not pay debts. they stormed a coutroom and were al captured. a revolt against the state governmetn
DeWitt Clinton
an early American politician who served as United States Senator and Governor of New York. In this last capacity he was largely responsible for the construction of the Erie Canal.
Panic of 1819
result of forclosures. marked the end of the economic expansion which followed the war
Tallmadge amendment
a potential agreement for the missouri conflict. which called for gradual emancipation and did not work. The south was afraid that eventually it would be asked to emancipate its slaves
Indian removal act, 1830
by Jackson, resettlement of Native Americans to lands west of the Mississippi river. "trail of tears" many died along the way
John C Fremont
an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery.
Emancipation Proclamation, 1863
consists of two executive orders issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. The first one, issued on September 22, 1862, declared the freedom of all slaves in any state of the Confederate States of America as did not return to Union control by January 1, 1863, and the second one, issued on January 1, 1863, enumerated the specific states where it applied.
charles towshend
prime minister after grenville. in charge of england's treasury. began an anti-America movement
George Pullman
an American inventor and industrialist. He is known as the inventor of the Pullman sleeping car, and for violently suppressing striking workers in the company town he created, Pullman, Chicago
james weaver
a United States politician and member of the United States House of Representatives, representing Iowa as a member of the Greenback Party. He ran for President two times on third party tickets in the late 19th century. An opponent of the gold standard and national banks, he is most famous as the presidential nominee of the Populist Party in the 1892 election.
Northwest ordinance, 1787
allowed for westward expansion and sayed how western territories could become states
quartering act, 1766
forced colonists to house brittish soldiers and prived food and other supplies. led tot he 3rd amendment
Noah Webster
made the first dictionary which differentiated American from Brittish spellings
molasses act
an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (citation 6 Geo II. c. 13), which imposed a tax of sixpence per gallon on molasses in order to make English products cheaper than those from the French West Indies. Largely opposed by colonists, the tax was rarely paid, and smuggling to avoid it was prominent. The growing corruption of local officials and disrespect for British Law caused by this act eventually led to the American Revolution
declaration of independence, 1776
finished on july 2nd. not read in public until 4th. jefferson was inspired by John Locke "unalienable rights" stated 27 greivences to king george
Harriet Beecher Stowe
an American abolitionist and novelist, whose Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852) attacked the cruelty of slavery; it reached millions as a novel and play, and became influential, even in Britain.
16th amandment, 1913
This Amendment overruled Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co. (1895), which greatly limited the Congress's authority to levy an income tax. This Amendment allows the Congress to levy an income tax without regard to the States or the Census
Hull House
was co-founded in 1889, in Chicago, Illinois, by Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr and is located in the Near West Side community area of Chicago in Cook County, Illinois, United States. It was one of the first settlement houses in the U.S. and eventually grew into one of the largest, with facilities in 13 buildings. Because of the Hull House's social, educational and artistic programs, it earned a reputation as the best-known settlement house in the U.S. and became the standard bearer for the movement that included almost 500 settlements nationally by 1920.[1]
Frederick Douglass
an American abolitionist, editor, orator, author, statesman and reformer. Called "The Sage of Anacostia" and "The Lion of Anacostia", Douglass was one of the most prominent figures in African American history and a formidable public presence. He was a firm believer in the equality of all people
Reform Crusaders
Ulysses S Grant
an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
Denmark Vesey Revolt, 1822
The plot called for Vesey and his group of slaves and free blacks to slay their owners and temporarily seize the city of Charleston. Shortly after the rebellion was to take place, Vesey and his followers planned to sail to Haiti to escape retaliation. The plot was leaked by two slaves opposed to Vesey's scheme, and 131 people were charged with conspiracy by Charleston authorities. In total, 67 men were convicted and 35 hanged, including Denmark Vesey.
Clement L Vallandigham
an Ohio unionist of the Copperhead faction of anti-war, pro-Confederate Democrats during the American Civil War.
elkins act, 1903
strengthened the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 by imposing heavy fines on railroads offering rebates and on the shippers accepting them. The railroad companies were not permitted to deviate from published rates. The law was sponsored by President Theodore Roosevelt, and greatly boosted his popularity. This law also caused nearly all railroads to become defunct for a short period of time.
were Northerners who moved to the South during Reconstruction between 1865 and 1877. They formed a coalition with Freedmen (freed slaves), and Scalawags (Southern whites who supported the Reconstruction) in the Republican Party, which in turn controlled ex-Confederate states for varying periods, 1867-1877.
Salmon P CHase
an American politician and jurist in the Civil War era who served as U.S. Senator from Ohio and Governor of Ohio; as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln; and as Chief Justice of the United States.
robert laFollette
an American politician who served as a U.S. Congressman, the 20th Governor of Wisconsin (1901-1906), and Republican Senator from Wisconsin (1905-1925). He ran for President of the United States as the nominee of his own Progressive Party in 1924, carrying Wisconsin and 17% of the national popular vote.
republican mothers
idea the women are the ones rasing children and teaching them to be good americans
meat inspection act, 1906
a United States federal law that authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections and condemn any meat product found unfit for human consumption. Unlike previous laws ordering meat inspections which were enforced to assure European nations from banning pork trade, this law was strongly motivated to protect the American diet. All labels on any type of food had to be 100 percent accurate
"uncle Joe" cannon
United States politician from Illinois and leader of the Republican Party. Cannon served as Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1903 to 1911, and historians generally consider him to be the most dominant Speaker in United States history, with such control over the House that he could often control debate. Cannon is the second longest-serving Republican Speaker in history,
Utopian Experiments
creation of an ideal world, or utopia, as the setting for a nove
George McClellan
a major general during the American Civil War. He organized the famous Army of the Potomac and served briefly (November 1861 to March 1862) as the general-in-chief of the Union Army. Early in the war, McClellan played an important role in raising a well-trained and organized army for the Union
Yorktown, 1781
americans surround yorktown and force the brittish to surrendor unconditionally. embarassment to the brittish
Hinton Helper
wrote an anti-slavery book because he hated blacks and found them inferior
report on manufacturers
a monetary standard in which the value of the monetary unit can be expressed either with a certain amount of gold or with a certain amount of silver. The ratio between the two metals is fixed by law. In economic history the debate took place primarily inside the United States in the late 19th century, as the U.S. was the only major country that was a large producer of both gold and silver.
Annapolis convention
wanted to revise the articles. urges american to come together, led to the constitution
John Bell
a U.S. Representative from Colorado
Thirteenth Amendmant
officially abolished and continues to prohibit slavery, and with limited exceptions, such as those convicted of a crime, prohibits involuntary servitude
Cyrus McCormick
an American inventor and founder of the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company, which became part of International Harvester Company in 1902
Albany Plan of Union, 1754
benjamin franklin had an assembly of the colonies to plan for a revolution. ultimately failed, but brought colonies together for a common cause
Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854
resulted from railroad issue. proposed by stephen douglas to split slavery evenly between states. pierce supported it, and it led to bleeding kansas
Samuel FB Morse
an American painter of portraits and historic scenes, the creator of a single wire telegraph system, and co-inventor, with Alfred Vail, of the Morse Code
John C. Calhoun
center of foriegn policy and financial disputes; spokesman for slavery, nullification, and the rights of electoral minorities
Battle of New Orleans, December, 1814
Jackson led an attack on a brittish camp which won him his fame as a hero. occured after the war ended
William M Tweed
a disgraced American politician who was convicted for stealing millions of dollars from New York City taxpayers through political corruption and died in jail. Tweed was head of Tammany Hall, the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in the politics of 19th century New York.
Fourteenth amendment
one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to secure rights for former slaves. It includes the Due Process and Equal Protection Clauses among others
an American chemical company that was founded in July 1802 as a gunpowder mill by Eleuthère Irénée du Pont. DuPont is currently the world's second largest chemical company (behind BASF) in terms of market capitalization and fourth (behind BASF, Dow Chemical and Ineos) in revenue. Its stock price is also a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average.
Jay-Gardoqui Treaty, 1786
between the United States and Spain guaranteed Spain's exclusive right to navigate the Mississippi River for 30 years. It also opened Spain's European and West Indian seaports to American shipping. However, the Treaty was not ratified under the Articles of Confederation
the power of a state to institute a law
Solidarity Forever
written by Ralph Chaplin in 1915, is perhaps the most famous union anthem after The Internationale. It is sung to the tune of "John Brown's Body" which also inspired the "Battle Hymn of the Republic". Although it was written as a song for the Industrial Workers of the World, other union movements, such as the AFL-CIO, have adopted the song as their own. The song is still performed by musicians such as Utah Phillips, and was redone by Emcee Lynx.
Eli Whitney
invented the cooton gin and interchangeable machine parts
George Custer
a United States Army officer and cavalry commander in the American Civil War and the Indian Wars. Promoted at an early age to a temporary war-time rank of Major General, and later made a permanent Lieutenant Colonel, he was a flamboyant and aggressive commander during numerous Civil War battles, known for his personal bravery in leading charges against opposing cavalry.
colored farmer's alliance
formed in the 1880s in the USA, when both black and white farmers faced great difficulties due to the rising price of farming and the decreasing profits which were coming from farming. At this time however the Southern Farmers' alliance which was currently in place, did not allow black farmers to join. Because of this, a group of black farmers decided to organize their own alliance.
Seward's Folly, 1867
The Alaska Purchase by the United States from the Russian Empire occurred in 1867 at the behest of Secretary of State William Seward. The territory purchased was 586,412 square miles (1,518,800 km²) of the modern state of Alaska.
Era of Good Feelings
period in US history (1817-23) when there was only one political party
National American Women's Suffrage Association, 1890
In 1900, regular national headquarters were established in New York City, under the direction of the new president Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt, who was endorsed by Susan B. Anthony after her retirement as first president. Three years later headquarters were moved to Warren, Ohio, but were then brought back to New York again shortly afterward, and re-opened there on a much bigger scale. The organization obtained a hearing before every Congress, from 1869 to 1919.
jay's treaty, 1794
between the United States and Great Britain averted war, solved many issues left over from the American Revolution, and opened ten years of largely peaceful trade in the midst of the French Revolutionary Wars. It was highly contested by Jeffersonians but passed Congress and became a central issue in the formation of the First Party System. The treaty was signed in November 1794, but was not proclaimed in effect until February 29, 1796. encouraged trade between the two nations and forced brittish out of the colonies
Wade-Davis Bill, 1864
a program proposed for the Reconstruction of the South written by two Radical Republicans, Senator Benjamin Wade of Ohio and Representative Henry Winter Davis of Maryland. In contrast to President Abraham Lincoln's more lenient Ten percent plan, the bill made re-admittance to the Union almost impossible
Walt Whitman
american poet, essayist, journalist, and humanist. imcorporated views of transcendentalism and realism in his works
judicial review
allows supreme court justices to interpret federal law and claim them unconstituional
Petetion of rights, 1628
also the brittish bill of rights. result of the glorious revolution and gave more civil rights to all brittish citizens. lessened the power of the monarchy
Force Bill, 1833
empowered president jackson to use the army and navy if necessary to enfore federal law
used to describe settlers who entered the Unassigned Lands, located in the current state of Oklahoma, before President Benjamin Harrison officially proclaimed them open to settlement with the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889 on March 2, 1889. The name derived from the "sooner clause" of the Indian Appropriation Act, which stated that no one should be allowed to enter and occupy the land prior to the opening time and that such people would be denied rights to illegally-claimed land
the grange
a fraternal organization for American farmers that encouraged farm families to band together for their common economic and political good. Founded in 1867 after the Civil War, it is the oldest surviving agricultural organization in America, though now much diminished from the over one million members it had in its peak in the 1890s through the 1950s.
Treaty of Ghent, 1814
ended the war of 1812. the brittish had to leave America
louis D brandeis
an American litigator, Supreme Court Justice, advocate of privacy, and developer of the Brandeis Brief. In addition, he helped lead the American Zionist movement
Yazoo Land claims
a massive fraud perpetrated by several Georgia governors and the state legislature from 1795 to 1803 by selling large tracts of land to insiders at ridiculously low prices.
Chesapeake-Leopard incident
the chesapeake (american trade ship) was a ttacked by the leopard (brittish batte ship). Americans became very angry at brittish.
Jay Gould
an American financier who became a leading American railroad developer and speculator. Long vilified as a stereotypical "robber baron", modern historians have discounted various myths about him and more positively evaluated his career.
Know-nothing party
a secret nativist American political movement of the 1850s. It was empowered by popular fears that the country was being overwhelmed by Irish Catholic immigrants, who were often regarded as hostile to American values and controlled by the Pope in Rome.
Peculiar institution
commonly used term int he government and in other places where the term "slavery" was deemed improper
Walkign Cities
an idea proposed by British architect Ron Herron in 1964. In an article in avant-garde architecture journal Archigram, Ron Herron proposed building massive mobile robotic structures, with their own intelligence, that could freely roam the world, moving to wherever their resources or manufacturing abilities were needed. Various walking cities could interconnect with each other to form larger 'walking metropolises' when needed, and then disperse when their concentrated power was no longer necessary. Individual buildings or structures could also be mobile, moving wherever their owner wanted or needs dictated
Ralph Waldo Emerson
american poet and essayist. established himself as a leading spokesman of transcendentalism
Tenure of Office Act, 1867
enacted over the veto of President Andrew Johnson, denied the President of the United States the power to remove from office anyone who had been appointed by the President by and with the advice and consent of the United States Senate unless the Senate also approved the removal.
a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. This may be the adoption of a new constitution, a constitutional amendment, a law, the recall of an elected official or simply a specific government policy. The referendum or plebiscite is a form of direct democracy.
Whig Party, 1834
joined in opposition to jackson
electoral college
a set of electors, who are empowered as a deliberative body to elect a candidate to a particular office. Often these electors represent a different organization or entity with each organization or entity by a particular number of electors or with votes weighted in a particular way. Many times, though, the electors are simply important persons whose wisdom, it is hoped, would provide a better choice than a larger body
commerce compromise
Oregon Queastion
arose as a result of competing British and American claims to the Oregon Country, a region of northwestern North America known also from the British perspective as the Columbia District, a fur-trading division of the Hudson's Bay Company. The region at question lay west of the Continental Divide and between the 42nd Parallel of latitude on the south (the northward limit of New Spain and after 1821 of Mexico) and the 54 degrees, 40 minutes line of latitude (the southward limit of Russian America).
Molly Maguires
members of a secret Irish organization. Many historians believe the Mollies were present in the anthracite coal fields of Pennsylvania in the United States from approximately the time of the American Civil War until a series of sensational arrests and trials in the years 1876−1878. Evidence that the Molly Maguires were responsible for coalfield crimes in the U.S. rests largely upon allegations of one powerful industrialist, and the testimony of one Pinkerton detective. Fellow prisoners also testified against the alleged Molly Maquires, but some believe these witnesses may have been coerced or bribed
friendhsip betweent he states. as well as belief in a strong centrla government. got america through the revolution
declaratory act, 1766
one of a series of resolutions passed attempting to regulate the behaviour of the colonies. led to revolution
Bleeding Kansas
the issue of slavery causes a war in kansas from an unfair vote. this mini war leads to the civil war
gaspee incident
a British revenue schooner that had been vigorously enforcing unpopular trade regulations, ran aground in shallow water, on June 9, 1772 near what is now known as Gaspee Point in the city of Warwick, Rhode Island while chasing the packet boat Hannah. In an act of defiance that gained considerable notoriety, the ship was attacked, boarded, stripped of valuables and torched by American patriots led by Abraham Whipple. led to battles of concord and lexington
Charles Pillsbury
a mediator, lawyer, and community activist in New Haven, Connecticut, where he is the executive director of Community Mediation, Inc. He is the great-grandson of Charles Alfred Pillsbury, founder of the Pillsbury Company in 1872. He is also the source of the name of the comic strip character Mike Doonesbury (a combination of the bording school slang, nickname "doone" and his surname.)
Fugitive slave law
forced people in the north to return runaway slaves to their owners. northernors did not comply
Santa Anna
a Mexican political leader who greatly influenced early Mexican and Spanish politics and government, first fighting against independence from Spain, and then becoming its chief general and president at various times over a turbulent 40-year career. He was President of Mexico on eleven non-consecutive occasions over a period of 22 years.
Waltham Method
Wilmot Proviso
The intent of the proviso, submitted by Democratic Congressman David Wilmot, was to prevent the introduction of slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico. The proviso did not pass in this session or in any other session when it was reintroduced over the course of the next several years, but many consider it as the first event in the long slide to Civil War which would accelerate through the 1850s.
John Quincy Adams
diplomat in many international negotiations. formulated the monroe doctrine.
Stephen A. Douglas
an American politician from the western state of Illinois, and was the Democratic Party nominee for President in 1860. He lost to the Republican Party's candidate, Abraham Lincoln, whom he had defeated two years earlier in a Senate contest following a famed series of debates
Hartford convention
meeting of federalists during the war of 1812 to discuss their problems in New ENgland. federalists are dying, and continue to oppose the government
a resource management term that refers to the grouping together of resources (assets, equipment, effort, etc.) for the purposes of maximizing advantage and/or minimizing risk to the users. The term is used in many disciplines.
19th amendment, 1920
provides that neither the individual states of the United States nor its federal government may deny a citizen the right to vote because of the citizen's sex.
battle of saratoga, 1777
an amazing victory in montreal for the colonists; convince the french to send aid, signing a treaty of amnity and commerce
William T Sherman
an American soldier, businessman, educator, and author. He served as a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War (1861-65), for which he received recognition for his outstanding command of military strategy and criticism for the harshness of the "scorched earth" policies that he implemented in conducting total war against the Confederate States
Roger B. Taney
a supreme court justice; personally opposed to slavery
McCulloch v. Maryland, 1819
states can't tax federal entities. limits state power
William H Seward
a Governor of New York, United States Senator and the United States Secretary of State under Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson.
Ex Parte Milligan
a United States Supreme Court case that ruled suspension of Habeas Corpus by President Abraham Lincoln as constitutional.
whiskey tax, 1791
excise tax on luxaries. led to a rebellions of SW PA farmers. washington enforce the law using the federal military
Roger B Taney
the twelfth United States Attorney General. He also was the fifth Chief Justice of the United States, holding that office from 1836 until his death in 1864, and was the first Roman Catholic to hold that office.
independent treasury system, 1840
divorced the federal government from the bank system and economy. Ven Buren thought that the panic would then fix itself
great compromise
"connecticut compromise" by Roger sherman which has been used ever since. compromise between big and small states. house of representative (based on population) and senate (equal representation. one head executive
Louisiana purchase, 1803
napoleon sold america all of the louisianna territory for $15 million. all jefferson had permitted, however, was the purchase of New Orleans for fewer than $10 million. according to the constitution, the presidents cannpt authorize treaties. upset federalists.
Seneca falls convention
the first women's rights convention in the US. often called the birth place of feminism
Freedman's Bureau, 1865
a federal agency that was formed during Reconstruction to aid distressed refugees of the American Civil War. The Freedmen's Bureau Bill was initiated by Abraham Lincoln and intended to last for one year after the end of the Civil War
James G Blaine
a U.S. Representative, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, U.S. Senator from Maine, two-time United States Secretary of State, and champion of the Half-Breeds. He was a dominant Republican leader of the post Civil War period, obtaining the 1884 Republican nomination, but lost to Democrat Grover Cleveland.
neutrality proclamation, 1793
washington and hamilton want the US to focus on national matters (debt, bank, a working gov). agree to stay away from foriegn affairs for a while
"log cabin" campaign, 1840
writ of habeas corpus
the name of a legal action, or writ, through which a person can seek relief from unlawful detention of themselves or another person. The writ of habeas corpus has historically been an important instrument for the safeguarding of individual freedom against arbitrary state action.
Company scrip was a credit against the accrued wages of employees. In the United States, where everything in a mining or logging camp was run, created and owned by a company, scrip provided the worker with credit when their wages had been depleted.
Bacon's Rebellion, 1676
Nathaniel Bacon led an uprisiing of landless farmers who captured jamesotwn. Led to Virginia's switch from indentured servitude to slavery
De Bow's Review
a widely circulated magazine of "agricultural, commercial, and industrial progress and resource" in the American South during the middle of the 19th century. It bore the name of its first editor, James Dunwoody Brownson DeBow.
John Winthrop
led a group of English Puritans to the New World, joined the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1629 and was elected their first governor. Created boston as a topia "city on a hill"
treaty of paris, 1783
us wanted freedom, land and recognition. franklin, jay, and adams went to paris. also made a seperate treaty with brittish. disgrace to brittish
essential to the feudal hierarchy; a lord would own land and his tenants became his vassals
Knights of Labor
one of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century. Founded by seven Philadelphia tailors in 1869 and led by Uriah S. Stephens, its ideology may be described as producerist, demanding an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories
wright brothers
two Americans who are generally credited[1] with inventing and building the world's first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and sustained heavier-than-air human flight on December 17, 1903. In the two years afterward, they developed their flying machine into the first practical fixed-wing aircraft. Although not the first to build and fly experimental aircraft, the Wright brothers were the first to invent aircraft controls that made mechanical fixed wing flight possible.
Rush-Baggot Treaty, 1817
between the US and Britain. provided for the demilitarization of the great lakes where many brittish forts still remained. Improving relations between US and Britain following war of 1812
Writs of Assistance
allowed english to search buisnesses factories, and homes for smuggled goods. Americans are lossing basic rights
john adams
sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, was a driving force for independence in 1776; Jefferson called him the "Colossus of Independence". He represented the Continental Congress in Europe. He was a major negotiator of the eventual peace treaty with Great Britain, and chiefly responsible for obtaining the loans from the Amsterdam money market necessary for the conduct of the Revolution
Gibbons V. Ogden, 1824
the federal govnt is in charge of interstate navigations, not the states
Transcontinental Railroad
a railway that crosses a continent typically from "sea to sea". Terminals are at or connected to different oceans. Because Europe is criss-crossed by railways, railroads within Europe are usually not considered transcontinental, the Orient Express perhaps being an exception
lincoln steffens
an American journalist and one of the most famous and influential practitioners of the journalistic style called muckraking. He is also known for his 1921 statement, upon his return from the Soviet Union: "I have been over into the future, and it works." His more famous quote "I've seen the future, and it works" can be found on the titlepage of his wife's, Ella Winter, 1933 edition of Red Virtue.
proclamation line, 1763
did not allow colonists to settle west of the appalachian (this land was reserved for Indians) led to pontiacs rebellion
battle of bunker hill
(or breed's hill) colonists ran out of ammunition but this loss gave them confidence. ( don't shoot until you see the whites of their eyes)
Specie circular, 1836
required payment for government lands to be in gold and silver specie
olive branch petition
last petition sent to king george befor independence. Sent to king and not parliament; repealed. resulted in revolution
Helen Hunt Jackson
an American writer best known as the author of Ramona, a novel about the ill treatment of Native Americans in southern California.
House of Burgesses, 1619
self governing legilature because virginia colony grew so large.elected representatives and governor (first parliament in America)
clayton act, 1914
was enacted in the United States to remedy deficiencies in antitrust law created under the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, the first Federal law outlawing practices "harmful" to consumers (monopolies and anti-competitive agreements). Passed during the Wilson administration, the legislation was first introduced by Alabama Democrat Henry De Lamar Clayton in the U.S. House of Representatives, where the act passed by a vote of 277 to 54 on June 5th, 1914. Though the Senate passed its own version on September 2nd, 1914 by a vote of 46-16, the final version of the law (written after deliberation between Senate and the House), did not pass the Senate until October 5th and the House until October 8th of the same year.
theodore dreiser
an American author of the naturalist school, known for dealing with the gritty reality of life.
Appomattox, 1865
fought during the Appomattox Campaign of the American Civil War. On April 8, 1865, Maj. Gen. George Armstrong Custer's Union cavalry, en route to Appomattox Station, clashed with the reserve artillery of the Confederate Third Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, under Colonel Lindsay Walker
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
an American social activist and leading figure of the early woman's movement. Her Declaration of Sentiments, presented at the first women's rights convention held in 1848 in Seneca Falls, New York, is often credited with initiating the first organized woman's rights and woman's suffrage movements in the United States
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
created a new body of romantic american legends through his poems
Lecompton Constitution
pro-slavery constitution for kanss. led to bleeding kansas
Waving the bloody shirt
refers to the demagogic practice of politicians referencing the blood of martyrs or heroes to inspire support or avoid criticism.
Second Great Awakening
second great religious revival in the US. renewal of personal salvation, encouraged women to become more active in society
ex post facto law
Ex post facto is the uncomplimentary characterization of law and legislation that applies retrospectively (i.e. "from a thing done afterward").
australian balllot
a voting method in which a voter's choices are confidential. The key aim is to ensure the voter records a sincere choice by forestalling attempts to influence the voter by intimidation or bribery.
Elizabeth Blackwell
the first woman in the US to recieve a medical degree. wrote many books on health and education
battle of trenton, 1776
surprise attck on the hessians which gives the colonists confidence
Nat Turner, 1831
slave who led a rebellion is virginia. most remarkable instance of black resistance to enslavement in teh south
Hanry Clay
Kentuckt rep.. known as "the great compromiser" founder and leader of the Whig party, came up with the American System
Cumberland or National Road
one of the first major improved highways in the US. built by the federal government
"Letters from an American Farmer"
written by Jean de Crèvecoeur in 1782. Gave America an indivuality which seperated it from other European countries especially england
Crittiden Compromise
an unsuccessful proposal by Kentucky Senator John J. Crittenden to resolve the U.S. secession crisis of 1860-1861 by addressing the concerns that led the states in the Deep South of the United States to contemplate secession.
control of the purse
the ability of one group to manipulate and control the actions of another group by withholding funding, or putting stipulations on the use of funds. colonists did not pay briittish delegates in the colonies; gave power to the people
Cumberland Road
one of the first major improved highways in the United States, built by the Federal Government. Construction began in 1811 at Cumberland, Maryland, on the Potomac River, and the road reached Wheeling, Virginia (now West Virginia) on the Ohio River in 1818. Plans were made to continue through St. Louis, Missouri, on the Mississippi River to Jefferson City, Missouri, but funding ran out and construction stopped at Vandalia, Illinois in 1839.
King Caucus
informal meetings were americna congressmen would nominate for the presidency and vice-presidency
Embargo Act, 1807
forbade the export of all goods from the united states. while origionlaly meant to help US economy and get back at the brittish, it resulted in hurting american buisnesses
bellinger-pinchot affair, 1909
Pinchot's authority was substantially undermined by the election of President William Howard Taft in 1908. Taft later fired Pinchot for speaking out against his policies and those of Richard Ballinger, Secretary of the Interior. Pinchot launched a series of public attacks to discredit Ballinger and force him from office in what became known as the Pinchot-Ballinger Controversy. That episode hastened the split in the Republican Party that led to the formation of the Progressive Party, of which Pinchot and his brother were top leaders
newlands reclamation act, 1902
a United States federal law that funded irrigation projects for the arid lands of the American West. It was authored by Representative Francis G. Newlands of Nevada.
the south carolina exposition and protest
written by calhoun as a protest against the tariff of abominations. stated that the tariff was nulllified in SC
Marbury v. Madison, 1803
in his ruling of this cas, John Marshall stated that the supreme court has the power to determine the meaning of the constituion. greatly increased the power of the court.
The IWW was founded in Chicago in June 1905 at a convention of two hundred socialists, anarchists, and radical trade unionists from all over the United States (mainly the Western Federation of Miners) who were opposed to the policies of the American Federation of Labor (AFL).
Liberty Party
anti-slavery organization. fprmed by abolitionists like BIrney, SMtih, and Garrison
A trust company is normally owned by one of three types of structures; an independent partnership, a bank, or a law firm, each of which specialize in being a trustee of various kinds of trusts, and managing estates.
Homestead Act, 1862
a United States Federal law that gave freehold title to 160 acres (one quarter section or about 65 hectares) of undeveloped land in the American West. The person to whom title was granted had to be at least 21 years of age, white, and free, to have built on the section, to have farmed on it for 5 years
began as a protest against the general state of the culture and society at the time. a group of new ideas expressed in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy which origionated in new england
Zenger Case, 1734
charges against the Governor William Cosby of the New York Colony in 1735[1] were important contributing factors to the development of freedom of the press in America. The Zenger decision helped clarify the beliefs of early Colonial life and lay the groundwork for the responsibilities of both media and government in a functioning democracy.
middle passage
forced transportation of African people from Africa to the New World as part of the Atlantic slave trade. Many died during the journey
Benign or Salutay Neglegt
England let America alone politically which allowed the colonies to prosper
a faction of the United States Republican Party toward the end of the 19th century.
Aaron Burr
a democratic republican who turned the election of 1800 around by ocnvincing New York to vite for jefferson.
Boston Masacre, 1770
colonists badgered a brittish soldier. 5 deaths
General Winfield Scott
a United States Army general, diplomat, and presidential candidate. Known as "Old Fuss and Feathers" and the "Grand Old Man of the Army", he served on active duty as a general longer than any other man in American history and most historians rate him the ablest American commander of his time
Henry David Thoreau
one of the most influential figures in american thought and literature. a supreme individualist who championed the human spirit against materialism and social conformity
Chicago Fire
was a conflagration that burned from Sunday October 8 to early Tuesday October 10, 1871, killing hundreds and destroying about four square miles in Chicago, Illinois. Though the fire was one of the largest U.S. disasters of the 19th century, the rebuilding that began almost immediately spurred Chicago's development into one of the most populous and economically important American and international cities.
Webster-Ashburton treaty, 1842
settled the dispute over the location of the Maine-New Brunswick border between the United States and Canada, then a colony of Britain. It also established the details of the border between Lake Superior and the Lake of the Woods, originally defined in the Treaty of Paris (1783);
Uncle Tom's Cabin
an anti-slavery novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe. Published in 1852, the novel had a profound effect on attitudes toward African Americans and slavery in the United States, so much so in the latter case that the novel intensified the sectional conflict leading to the American Civil War.[1
second continental congress, 1775
get america throught the war with continental army. led by john hancock
Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896
landmark United States Supreme Court decision in the jurisprudence of the United States, upholding the constitutionality of racial segregation even in public accommodations (particularly railroads), under the doctrine of "separate but equal".
Tariff of 1816
increased the price of brittish goods in America to protect american buisnesses. north liked this; south hated it because our goods were inturn taxed in other countries. first protective tariff
ida tarbell
a teacher, an author and journalist. She was known as one of the leading "muckrakers" of her day, work known in modern times as "investigative journalism." She wrote many notable magazine series and biographies. She is best-known for her 1904 book The History of the Standard Oil Company, which was listed number five among the top 100 works of twentieth-century American journalism by the New York Times in 1999.
federal reserve act, 1913
the act of Congress that created the Federal Reserve System, the central banking system of the United States of America, which was signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson.
bank of the united states
paper money, suplus money, and private investments. jefferson believed in unconstituional, but hamilton said that it was "necessary and proper"
Thomas W. Dorr
leader of Dorr's rebellion in Rhode ISland. became leader of a universial suffrage movement
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, 1831
cherokee could not have their own government
Black Codes
laws passed on the state and local level mainly in the rural Southern states in the United States to restrict the civil rights and civil liberties of African Americans. While some northern states also passed legislation discriminating against African Americans before the Civil War, the term Black Codes is most commonly associated with legislation passed by Southern states after the Civil War in an attempt to control the labor, movements and activities of African Americans.
Navigation Acts
a series of laws which restricted the use of foreign shipping in the trade of England (later the Kingdom of Great Britain and its colonies). Resentment against the Navigation Acts was a cause of the Anglo-Dutch Wars and the American Revolutionary War.
nelson W aldrich
a prominent American politician and leader of the Republican Party in the Senate from 1881 to 1911.
Ku Klux Klan
the name of several past and present organizations in the United States that have advocated white supremacy, anti-Semitism, anti-Catholicism, racism, homophobia, anti-Communism and nativism. These organizations have often used terrorism, violence, and acts of intimidation, such as cross burning and lynching, to oppress African Americans and other social or ethnic groups.
Homestead Strike, 1892
a labor lockout and strike which began on June 30, 1892, culminating in a battle between strikers and private security agents on July 6, 1892. It is one of the most serious labor disputes in U.S. history. The dispute occurred in Pittsburgh-area town of Homestead, Pennsylvania, between the Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers (the AA) and the Carnegie Steel Company.
fought on September 17, 1862, near Sharpsburg, Maryland, and Antietam Creek, as part of the Maryland Campaign, was the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties.[1]
mcClure's cosmopolitan collier's
an American illustrated monthly periodical popular at the turn of the 20th century. It was often compared to The Atlantic Monthly. The latter magazine is still published.
Jane Addams
founder of the U.S. Settlement House movement, and the first American woman to be awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
alien and sedition acts, 1798
laws instated to save federalist party. outlawed speaking out against the government, made the time for citizenship longer and allowed for the exile of potential dangerous aliens
a writer who investigates and exposes societal issues such as conditions in slums and prisons, child prostitution, child pornography, unsanitary conditions in food processing plants, fraudulent claims by manufacturers of patent medicines and related topics.
a Southern white who joined the Republican party in the ex-Confederate South during Reconstruction. The term originally was pejorative and meant rascal, but is used descriptively in the 21st century by most scholars and reference books. The postwar scalawags overlapped with the wartime Unionists in the South, but they were distinct groups.
Benjamin Franklin
one of the most important and influental Founding Fathers. a major figure in the development of positive Franco-American relations
jacob riis
a Danish-American muckraker journalist, photographer, and social reformer, was born in Ribe, Denmark. He is known for his dedication to using his photographic and journalistic talents to help the less fortunate in New York City, which was the subject of most of his prolific writings and photographic essays. He helped with the implementation of "model tenements" in New York with the help of humanitarian Lawrence Veiller. As one of the first photographers to use flash, he is considered a pioneer in photography.
Commodore Matthew Perry
the Commodore of the U.S. Navy who compelled the opening of Japan to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854.
Adams-Onis treaty, 1819
between US and spain to settle the border. a result of increasing tensions between the two countries. gave florida to the US
Sugar Islands
considered principally a strategic possession, but were planted when economic conditions were particularly favourable. The British introduced sugar cane which was to become the main crop and source of foreign trade, and slaves were brought from Africa to work on the sugar cane plantations.
Mercy Otis Warren
an active woman and patriot. she wrote "history of the rise" "progress" and "termination of the american revolution"
Charles Guiteau
an American lawyer who assassinated President James A. Garfield on July 2, 1881. He was executed by hanging.
the quebec act, 17774
gave french canadians more rights so that they didn't rebel as colonists had. gave customs, language, religion, self government, and more land
frederick taylor
an American mechanical engineer who sought to improve industrial efficiency. A management consultant in his later years, he is sometimes called "the father of scientific management." He was one of the intellectual leaders of the Efficiency Movement and his ideas, broadly conceived, were highly influential in the Progressive Era.
Farewell address, 1796
Washington, with James Madison, wrote a farewell address to the public of the United States of America. Faced with the unanimous objections of his Cabinet, however, Washington agreed to stand for another term. Finally, in 1796, Washington refused a third term. Dusting off his previous address, Washington and Alexander Hamilton rewrote the address. the people had loved and respected washington
Mexican Cession
a historical name for the region of the present day southwestern United States that was ceded to the U.S. by Mexico in 1848 under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo following the Mexican-American War. The cession of this territory from Mexico was a condition for the end of the war, as United States troops occupied Mexico City, and Mexico risked being completely annexed by the U.S. The United States also paid $15,000,000
virginia and kentucky resolutions, 1798
important political statements in favor of states' rights written secretly by Vice President Thomas Jefferson and James Madison (then in retirement) in 1798. They were passed by the two states in opposition to the federal Alien and Sedition Acts. no other states signed.
The War of the Regulation was a North Carolina uprising, lasting from approximately 1764 to 1771, where mostly lower class citizens took up arms against corrupt colonial officials. eventually led to revolution
common sense, 1776
by thomas paine all about the need to establish and fight for american independence. propganda!
Acres of Diamonds
originated as a speech which Conwell delivered over 6,000 times around the world; it was eventually published as delivered in Conwell's home town, Philadelphia. The central idea of the work is that one need not look elsewhere for opportunity, achievement, or fortune -- the resources to achieve all good things are present in your own community.
checks and balances
ensures that no one branch becomes too powerful
Compromise of 1850
admission of california as a freestate and passage of fugitive slavelaw to placate the south
munn v. illinois, 1877
a United States Supreme Court case dealing with corporate rates and agriculture. The Munn v. Illinois case allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders, including railroads.
George III
in his reign, Great Britain defeated France in the Seven Years' War, becoming the dominant European power in North America and India. However, many of its American colonies were soon lost in the American Revolutionary War, which led to the establishment of the United States. He also expected ass indians to be loyal to him
Commonwealth v. Hunt, 1842
labor unions which attempted to 'close' or create a unionized workplace could be charged with conspiracy. However, in March 1842, Chief Justice Lemuel Shaw ruled that unions were legal organizations and had the right to organize a strike.
citizen genet
french ambassador to the US who came to illegally recuit soldiers for the french revolution
Dumbbell Tenement
tenements built in New York City after the Tenement House Act of 1879 and before the so-called "New Law" of 1901.
hamilton wanted to assume state debts. won approval of the rich
Popular Sovereignty
the belief that the state is created by and therefore subject to the will of its people, who are the source of all political power. The idea was championed by Stephen A. Douglas and provided a means to delay dealing with the larger issue. It was first proposed by Vice President George Dallas in 1847 and was popularized by Lewis Cass in his 1848 presidential campaign. The doctrine was incorporated into the Compromise of 1850 and four years later was an important feature of the Kansas-Nebraska Act
each perosn must decide for themselves what perfection is which is different for everyone
the constitution of the United States
the supreme law of the United States of America. It was adopted on September 17, 1787, by the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and later ratified by conventions in each state in the name of "the People";
erie canal
all-america water route betweent he greatlakes and the atlantic coast. brought political unity, easy and inexpensive transpotation, and increased trade
pickney treaty, 1795
established intentions of friendship between the United States and Spain. It also defined the boundaries of the United States with the Spanish colonies and guaranteed the United States navigation rights on the Mississippi River.
James FIsk
was a politician from Vermont who was elected to the United States Senate and the House of Representatives. Born in Greenwich, Massachusetts, he was self-educated and served in the Revolutionary War from 1779 to 1782.
American System
written by henry clay. a high tariff to support internal improvements:roads, canals, bank
Martin Van Buren
key organizer of the democratic party. first president who did not experience the american revolution first hand
a procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office. Along with the initiative, referendum, and direct primary, it was one of the major electoral reforms advocated by leaders of the Progressive movement in the United States during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. This movement was less than successful because in the United States recall elections are currently prohibited in the federal system. The majority of states allow recall elections in local jurisdictions, but only 18 states permit recall elections to remove statewide officers (as of 2006).
John Brown's Raid
led 19 men in an attack on the Harpers Ferry Armory. He had received 200 breechloading .52 caliber Sharps carbines and pikes from northern abolitionist societies in preparation for the raid
Horace Greeley
an American editor of a leading newspaper, a founder of the Republican party, reformer and politician. His New York Tribune was America's most influential newspaper from the 1840s to the 1870s and "established Greeley's reputation as the greatest editor of his day."[1] Greeley used it to promote the Whig and Republican parties, as well as antislavery and a host of reforms. Crusading against the corruption of Ulysses S. Grant's Republican administration, he was the presidential candidate in 1872 of the new Liberal Republican Party. Despite having the additional support of the Democratic Party, he lost in a landslide.
Towshend Acts, 1767
tax on glass, tea, paper, and lead. all were repealed except for that on tea. increased smuggling
Slidell Mission, 1846
Prior to the Mexican-American War, Slidell was sent to Mexico, by President James Knox Polk, to negotiate an agreement whereby the Rio Grande River would be the southern border of Texas. He also was instructed to offer, among other alternatives, a maximum of $25 million for California by Polk and his administration. With the guidance of General Zachary Taylor, U.S. troops were stationed at the U.S./Mexico border, ready to attack upon orders. The Mexican government rejected Slidell's mission, and the United States declared war on Mexico on May 13, 1846.
John Wilkes Booth
an American stage actor, who assassinated Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865. Lincoln died the next day from a single gunshot wound to the back of the head, becoming the first American president to be assassinated
Sherman Anti-Trust act, 1890
was the first United States government action to limit cartels and monopolies. It is the oldest of all federal U.S. antitrust laws.
Joseph Smith
american mormon leader, who founded the church of Jesus Christ of the latter. a highly controversial figure
Orders-in-coucil, 1807
didn't allow american agricultural products to be shipped to europe. made many americans agry with brittish
william jennings bryan
an American lawyer, statesman, and politician. He was a three-time Democratic Party nominee for President of the United States. One of the most popular speakers in American history, he was noted for his deep, commanding voice. Bryan was a devout Presbyterian, a strong proponent of popular democracy, an outspoken critic of banks and railroads, a leader of the silverite movement in the 1890s, a dominant figure in the Democratic Party, a peace advocate, a prohibitionist, an opponent of Darwinism, and one of the most prominent leaders of Populism in late 19th- and early 20th century America
Texas Question
article of confederation, 1777
first american independent american government. very weak center which could not collect taxe. only assisted with millitary affairs and foriegn policy
Anne Hutchinson
strong willed anti-nomian who was banished fromt he massachusettes bay colony. a key figure in the study of the development of religious freedom in England's American colonies and the history of women in ministry
Maysville Road veto,1830
jackson vetoed the bil saying that it was the states' responsibilities to make internal improveents
women's christian temperance union
the oldest continuing non-sectarian women's organization in the U.S. and worldwide. Founded by Frances Willard in Fredonia, New York in 1874, the group spearheaded the crusade for prohibition. Members advanced their cause by entering saloons, singing, praying, and urging saloonkeepers to stop selling alcohol. Subsequently, on December 22, 1873, they were the first local organization to adopt the name, Women's Christian Temperance Union.
wilson gorman tariff, 1894
slightly reduced the United States tariff rates from the numbers set in the 1890 McKinley tariff. It is named for William L. Wilson Representative from West Virginia, chair of the U.S. House Ways and Means Committee, and Senator Arthur P. Gorman of Maryland.
Nicholas Biddle
origional promoter of the second bank, and its argest investor
Lincoln-Douglas Debates, 1858
the twelfth United States Attorney General. He also was the fifth Chief Justice of the United States, holding that office from 1836 until his death in 1864, and was the first Roman Catholic to hold that office.
Roger Williams
legal founder off rhode island; first baptist church, and established Providence with a complete seperation of church and state
Habeas Corpus
is the name of a legal action, or writ, through which a person can seek relief from unlawful detention of themselves or another person. The writ of habeas corpus has historically been an important instrument for the safeguarding of individual freedom against arbitrary state action.
Robert E. Lee
a career United States Army officer, an engineer, and the most celebrated general of the Confederate forces during the American Civil War.
New England Confederation, 1643
a political and military alliance of the British colonies of Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven. Established May 19, 1643, its primary purpose was to unite the Puritan colonies against the Indians. bonded colonies together
George Grenville
brittish prime minister who ended slautary neglegt with the stamp sugar and quarteing acts.
barbary pirates
pirates off of cost of africa which raided a pillaged trade shipsd
Minor v. Happensatt, 1874
Dawes Act, 1887
authorized the President of the United States to have Native American tribal lands surveyed and divided into allotments for individual Native American families. It was enacted on February 8, 1887 and named after its sponsor, U.S. Senator Henry L. Dawes of Massachusetts. The act was amended in 1891 and again in 1906 by the Burke Act. The act remained in effect until 1934.
Virtual and actual representation
parliament represents all brittish citizens, but colonists do not actually have representitives in parliament
Missouri Compromise, 1820
involved the regulation of slavery in the western territories. no slavery north of 36, 30. also gave maine statehood
Fifteenth Amendment
provides that governments in the United States may not prevent a citizen from voting based on that citizen's race, color, or previous condition of servitude (i.e. slavery).
Gasden Purchase, 1853
strip of land that the us bought from mexico. most practical route for a southern railroad. defines current US/mexican border
Jefferson Davis
an American politician who served as President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history from 1861 to 1865 during the American Civil War. During his presidency, Davis was never able to find a strategy that would defeat the larger, more industrially developed Union.
lord north
prime minister after townshend. forced out of office by a motion of no confidence,
WEB DeBois
an African American civil rights activist, leader, Pan-Africanist, sociologist, educator, historian, writer, editor, poet, and scholar. He became a naturalized citizen of Ghana in 1963 at the age of 95.[2]
pujo committee
a congressional subcommittee which was formed between May 1912 and January 1913 to investigate the so-called "money trust", a small group of Wall Street bankers that exerted powerful control over the nation's finances. After a resolution introduced by congressman Charles Lindbergh Sr. for a probe on Wall St. power, Arsène Pujo of Louisiana obtained congressional authorization to form a subcommittee of the House Committee on Banking and Currency. J. P. Morgan, George F. Baker, and other financiers testified
Immigration Patterns
immigration has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of American history. from northern and western europe
wabash case, 1886
a United States Supreme Court case that severely limited the rights of states to control interstate commerce. It led to the creation of the Interstate Commerce Commission.
Samuel Houston
a 19th century American statesman, politician, and soldier. Born in Rockbridge County, Virginia, in the Shenandoah Valley, Houston was a key figure in the history of Texas, including periods as President of the Republic of Texas, Senator for Texas after it joined the United States, and finally as governor
Sugar Act, 1765
the first official parliamentary tax in America. increased smuggling
sons of liberty
violent pre-revolutionary group
Conscription Law, 1863
a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority, but it is most often used in the specific sense of government policies that require citizens (often just males) to serve in their armed forces
letters from an american farmer
14 anonymous letters written by john dickenson. claimed towshend acts unjust and unconstitutional
Dred Scott v. Sandford, 1857
The idea was championed by Stephen A. Douglas and provided a means to delay dealing with the larger issue. It was first proposed by Vice President George Dallas in 1847 and was popularized by Lewis Cass in his 1848 presidential campaign. The doctrine was incorporated into the Compromise of 1850 and four years later was an important feature of the Kansas-Nebraska Act
Roscoe COnkling
a politician from New York who served both as a member of the United States House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate. He was the leader of the Stalwart faction of the Republican Party.
movement of relgiious thought emphasizung natural religion
New South Creed
a phrase that has been used intermittently since the American Civil War to describe the American South, in whole or in part. The term "New South" is often used in contrast to the Old South of the antebellum period.
the crime that covers some of the more serious acts of disloyalty to one's sovereign or nation
William Lloyd Garrison
abolitionist and journalist. editor of the liberator, and founder of the american anti-slavery society

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