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Midterms - Sociology - Positivism-Social Marginality


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participant observation
a research method in which researches systematically observe people while joining in their routine activities
robert merton
a sociologist associated with the structural-functional theory
social sanctions
punishments and rewards from others to promote conformity. external. others sanction us (this can be positive or negative)
survey research
a research method in which subjects respond to a series of items in a questionnaire or an interview; most widely used of all research methods.
social marginality
being excluded from social activity as an "outsider"
secondary group
a large and impersonal social group devoted to some specific interest or activity
a means to understand the world based on science
primary group
a small social group in which relationships are both personal and enduring; members of this group think of each other as unique, not interchangeable
reference group
a social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations or decisions
robin williams
the guy who came up with 10 values central to culture in american society (equal opportunity, achievement and success, activity and work, material comfort, practicality and efficiency, progress, science, democracy and free enterprise, freedom, racism and group superiority)
secondary analysis
a research method in which a researcher utilizes data collected by others
social interaction
the process by which people act and react in relation to others
research method
a strategy for systematically conducting research (experiments, surveys, participant observation, secondary and historical analysis)
a research method for investigating cause and effect under highly controlled conditions
role strain
incompatibility among roles corresponding to one status
repetition of research by others in order to assess its accuracy
patterns of expected behavior attached to a particular status
the lifelong social experience by which individuals develop human potential and learn the patterns of their culture
role conflict
incompatibility among roles corresponding to different statuses
role set
the number of roles assigned to a particular status
social integration
being social; getting involved with other people
ralph linton
the guy who described a role as the dynamic expression of a status: individuals HOLD a status and PERFORM a role

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