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Developmental Psych 1


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GD - schizophrenia
Genital stage
(puberty-on) maturation of sexual interests
culture, ethnicity, family, neighborhood, socioeconomic status
Major contextual influences (cefns)
field study - observing behaviors in the natural environment
repeating essence of study with different group of subject to support or not the orginial study
slow to warm up
(15%) responded slowly to change
keeping unacceptable impulses out of conscious awareness
cognitive-stage theory
transforming unacceptable impulses into more socially valued activities
GD - more acute and lasting sense of smell
intermittent reinforcement schedule
some of the time the desired behavior is reinforced, and some of the time it isn't
correlation coefficient
(r) goes from +1 to -1 measures both the direction and the magnitude of the relationship between the two variables
Latency stage
(6 - puberty) repressed sexual feelings
subject bias
subject behaves in a way that he believes the experimenter wants him to behave
7.5 lbs
average weight of newborn
young adulthood
intimacy versus identity confusion
attibuting one's own threatening impulses or unacceptable characteristics to others
conventional level
(late childhood - early adolescence) morality of law and social rules
Interactive behaviors, motor behaviors, physiological control, response to stress
Brazelton Test (IMPR)
3rd stage of labor
stage where the placenta and any remains of umbilical cord leave the mother's body
stranger anxiety
(8-9 mo's) wariness of unknown people
Brazelton Neonatel Behavioral Assessment Scale
test administered within a few days after birth; trying to illicit baby's best performace, better predictor
monozygotic twins
identical twins
one doesn't have the ability to take another person's viewpoint
walking reflex
when baby is held under arms, with bare feet touching flat surface, it makes step-liek motions that look like well-coordinated walking
GD - speech problems
social learning theory
(7-11) thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations
middle childhood
industry versus inferiority
widening of the cervix (eventually to 10 cm)
incorporate new experiences into an already existing schema
contains moral principles and values; focuses on how we ought to behave
3-4 mo's
teething typicall begins
vernix caseosa
oily protection against infection that covers new babies
fuzzy prenatal hair not yet fallen off of neonate
Oral Stage
(1-18 mo's) pleasure centers on the mouth
basic trust versus mistrust
Apgar scale
scale for determining baby's health; total scores below 7 should raise concern
social learning theory
17 mo's
when child can walk up stairs
GD - computation
3 mo's
when child can roll over
cognitive-stage theory
GD - learning disorders
simple to complex
babies develop simple skills before complex ones
statistical analysis
finding out if differences are significant and cannot happen by chance alone
critical period
specific times during development when a given event has its greatest impact
tonic neck reflex
hen baby is laid down on back, the baby turns head to one side, assumes "fencer" position, extends arms and legs on preferred side, flexes opposite limbs
Huntington's Disease
degenerative disease of the central nervous system of dominant inheritance
babinski reflex
when the sole of a baby's foot is stroked, the toes fan out and the foot twists
earliest sense to develop (32 wks gestational age)
head develops before arms before feet
embryonic stage
2-9 wks into prenatal development when placenta and umbilical cord begin to form; most vulnerable period)
Social learning theory
individuals are going to learn by observing and imitating the behavior of others
dizygotic twins
fraternal twins
venting anger on a vulnerable or less threatening victim instead of the actual source of anger
secondary reinforcer
a conditioned stimulus that strengthens or increases the response that it follows
Preconventional level
(early childhood) morality of self-interest
(birth to 2 yr) when child experiences the world through their senses and actions
2nd stage of labor
pushing stage that starts when baby's head leaves the cervix and moves into vaginal canal and ends when baby leaves the body
pre-conscious mind
all memories which are not part of current thoughts but can be readily brought to mind according to Freud
Down Syndrome
chromosomal abnormality with 3 copies of 21st chromosome resulting in mental retardation (1 out of 600-800 children)
rooting reflex
when baby's cheek or lower lip is stroked with finger or nipple, it's head turns, mouth opens, and sucking movements begin
positive reinforcer
a pleasant simulus that strengthens or increases the response that it follows
unconscious mind
bulk of mind, thoughts, desires, and mipulses of which we are largely unaware
3 yr
when child can balance briefly on one foot
contextual perspective
approach that emphasizes the role of the environment and how it affects the individuals; multiple layers
Preconventional, conventional, postconventional
Kohlberg's moral development stages (PCP)
irrational thinking process
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
disorder in 5 out of 1000 children with mental retardation and other problems due to alcohol intake by mother
2 objects that are equal remain equal, those with differences remain different
oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
Freud's stages of personality development (OAPLG)
GD - suicides
starts with an existing behavior and reinforces closer and closer approximations to the actual desired behavior
negative reinforcer
the termination of an unpleasant stimulus that strengthens or increases the response that it follow (stopping nagging)
5.5 mo's
when child can sit without support
thinning and softening of the cervix
darwinian reflex
when the palm of the baby's hand is stroked, it makes a strong fist, can be raised to standing position
Phallic stage
(3-6 yrs) pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings
4th stage of labor
recovery and rest stage of labor
Rh incompatibility
a complication of pregnancy that can occur when the father is Rh positive, the mother is Rh negative, and the baby is Rh positive
way of looking at the world that helps one to organize their past experiences and provides a framework to understand future experiences
late adulthood
ego integrity versus despair
1st stage of labor
effacement and dilation occur
American psychiatric/Psychological Association
moral development stages
reaction formation
unconsciously feeling or acting the opposite of one's true anxiety-arousing (and threatening) unconscious feelings
ethological approach
approach that focuses on biological and evolutionary basis of behavior, adaptive value
peak experience
estatic or spritual experience of some kind
1 yr
child typically has 6-8 teeth
1 yr
when child can stand alone and walk
low birth weight
2nd leading cause of infant mortality
New York Longitudinal study
Chess & Birch conducted this study with 130 children and infants over a number of years to classify 3 temperamental groups
case study
index study of one individual
Tay-sach's disease
degenerative disease of the central nervous system of recessive inheritance; commonly found in eastern european Jews
formal operational
(12 - adulthood) abstract reasoning;
2-3 yrs
all primary teeth are typically in place
(40%) responded well to change and new people, more positive and mild emotional responses
identity versus identity confusion
descriptive statistics
median, mode, average, etc.
autnomy versus shame and doubt
any consequence that decreases or weakens the recurrence of the behavior it follows
2 yr
when child can run and jump
18-20 in.
average length of newborn
GD - verbal ability
GD - spatial tasks
psychosocial theory
morality of constraint
(4-7 yrs) intent (judges by consequences), immanent justice (punishment is the will of God), punishment (child approves severe punishment)
operational definition
definition that is stated in terms that can be observed and measured
Moral development stages
classical conditioning
human capital
presence of educated, employed individuals which provide economic base and models for children of neighborhood
Germinal stage
early stage in prenatal development where sperm and ova fuse and mitosis occurs (rapid cell differentiation takes place)
appearance, pulse, grimace, activity, respiration
object permanence
(8-9 mo's) understanding that a person or object exists even when it is not in sight
Morality of cooperation
(8 yrs plus) intent (child judges act by intentions), immanent justice (god not responsible), punishment (child approves of mild punishment)
illness that can cause a child to be born with hearing problems and heart defects
retreating to an earlier, more infantile stage of development where some of our psychic energies are still fixated
GD - anxiety and depression
germinal, embryonic, fetal
Prenatal development stages (GEF)
sex-linked inheritance
abnormality is carried on the sex chromosome and mostly affects males
part of the personality that operates on the reality principle; is the mediator between the id and superego
adjust our schema to fit the particular of new experiences or new situaitons
Anal stage
(18-36 mo's) pleasure focuses on bowel/bladder elimination; coping with demands for control
GD - antisocial personality disorder (psychopath)
fetal stage
9wks to birth in prenatal development
early childhood
initiative versus guilt
sensory experience without an accopmanying sensory stimulus; auditory most common
operant conditioning
information-processing approach
how the brain works at gathering, storing, retrieving, and using information
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
sudden death of any infant under 1 yr of age in which cause of death remains unexplained after a thorough investigation that includes an autopsy
5-9 mo's
first tooth typically appears
classical conditioning
psychotic disorder marked by a loss of contact with reality and by symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations
Sensorimotor, Preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
Piaget's stages of cognitive development (SPCF)
(10%) didn't respond well to change, intense and negative emotional responses
Moro reflex
when the baby is dropped or hears loud noise, it extends legs, arms, and figners, arches backk, draws head back
statistical technique (Galton) which attempts to determine whether two variables are related/associated
events that don't normally happen to most people or events that normally occur but at an atypical chronological age
Concrete Operational
(7-11) thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations
changes that occur in a similar way for most people in a given group
soft spot on neonate's head where bones have not yet grown together
Denver Developmental Screening test
test that provides norms for when children typically reach some of their developmental and motor milestones
Part of personality that operates on the pleasure principle; strives to satisfy instinctual drives to survive; reproduce and aggress
continuous reinforcement schedule
every time the individual exhibits the desired response, they are rewarded (initial learning and extinction both occur quickly)
Postconventional lvel
(adolescence on) morality of abstract principles
core develops before hands before fingers
intellectualizing or explaining away one's unacceptable behavior
authoritative schema for identiftying different psychological disorders
single most important factor in low birth weight in babies (also increases childhood cancer and learning problem risks)
middle adulthood
generativity versus stagnation
Morality of constraint; morality of cooperation
Piaget's stages of moral development
GD - problem solving
psychotic disorder
when an individual can't distinguish reality form fantasy
conscious mind
all current thoughts according to Freud
GD - suicide attempt
psychosocial theory
primary reinforcer
satisfying a basic need without having to be learned that stregthens or increases the response that it follows
birth defects
1st leading cause of infant mortality
operant conditioning
deciduous teeth
baby teeth (20)
non-sex chromosome
(2-7 yrs) representing things with words and images but lacking logical reasoning
physiological, safety, belonging, esteem, self-actualization
Maslow's hierarchy of needs (PSBES)
folic acid
vitamin that reduces the likelihood that child will have some kind of neural defect

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