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AP Psych Exam

Terms

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placebo
inert substance that is administered as a test of whether an exp participant who thinks treatment is in effect, behaves the same as if it was actually present
Control Condition
ind variable is withheld so that comparison 2 exp cond can be made (ex: ppl who don't get drug)
Hindsight Bias
refers to the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome - including a psych research finding - that 1 would have foreseen
illusory correlation
false perception of a relationship btwn 2 events when none exists
double-blind procedure
control procedure in which neither the experimentor nor participants are aware of which condition is in effect, used 2 prevent participants & exp from inf result
experimental condition
participants are exposed 2 ind variable being studied (ex: ppl who receive drug)
Correlation Coefficient
stat measure that indicates the extent 2 which 2 factors vary tog, thus how well 1 factor can be predicted from the other
Independent variable
factor being manipulated & tested by investigator (IF)
Functionalism
James, emphasized adaptive significance of behavior & mental processes
placebo effect
any effect on behavior caused by placebo
Operational definitions
precise statements of procedures used 2 def independent & dependent variables
Random Sample
1 that is rep b/c every member of the pop has an equal chance of being included
Culture
enduring behaviors, ideals, attitudes, trads shared by large group of ppl & trans from gen 2 gen
experiment
research strategy i which a researcher directly manip factors in order 2 observe effects
Scatterplot
depiction of the relationship btwn 2 variables by means of graphed cluster of dots
Applied Research
sci study that aims to solve practical problems
Dependent Variable
factor being measured by investigator (THEN, reaction)
Case Study
desc research strategy in which 1 person is studied in great depth, often w/ intention of revealing universal principles
statistical significance
obtained result very likely represents real diff rather than sampling variation or chance factors
Empiricism
knowledge comes from senses; observation & experimentation are the basis of sci
Psychiatry
branch of medicine concerned w/ physical diagnosis & treatment of psych disorder
Random Assignment
procedure of assigning participants 2 exp & cont cond by chance 2 min diff btwn groups
Population
consists of all the members of a group being studied
Structuralism
Titchener, introspection to examine mind
theory
explanation using an integrated set of principles that org & predicts observations
hypothesis
testable prediction, often implied by theory, testing hypothesis helps scientists 2 test the theory
Replication
process of repeating an experiment, often w/ diff participants & in diff situations, 2 see whether the basic finding generalizes 2 other ppl & circumstances
Naturalistic Observation
involves observing & recording behav in naturally occurring situations w/o trying 2 manip & control
Clinical Psychology
branch of psych concerned w/ study, assessment, treatment of ppl w/ disorders
Critical Thinking
careful reasoning that examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, assesses conclusions
Basic Research
pure sci that aims to increase psychology's sci knowlege base rather than 2 solve practical problems
nature-nurture issue
controversy over relative contributions that genes & experience make in the dev of psychological traits & behaviors
standard deviation
avg amount by which scores in distribution deviate around mean, more precise than range
Survey
descriptive research strategy in which a rep, random sample of ppl are ques about attitudes & behav
false consensus effect
tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs & behaviors
Natural Selection
principle that those traits of a species that contribute to reproduction & survival are most likely to be passed on to next generations

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