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west civ - Chapt 2 (friebel matching section)

Terms

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bronze
mixture of copper and tin. harder than pure copper, and more useful for tools and weapons
Canaan
Palestine; the land Jews believed god had promised them. drought and famine caused the Jews to leave Canaan and go to Egypt
prophets
religious teachers that believe that they were messengers sent to reveal gods will to the Jews
chaldeans
assyrian enemies, defeated assyrians after ninevah's downfall, and made Babylon their capital, believed the starts determined human destiny, their observations formed the basis for both astronomy and astrology
Phoenicians
invented the first alphabet (found a way to keep records using 22 symbols, instead of 600 symbols [cuneiform]). most powerful traders and merchants around the mediterranean sea. founded trading colonies.
colony
settlements controlled by the Phoenicians (founded them on almost every mediterranean island)
Jerusalem
capital of the Jewish peoples kingdom of Israel
satrap
the governer of each province of the Persian empire
sumer
homeland of the Sumerians. in the southern part of Mesopotamia. city nor country. collection of seperate cities w/ a common way of life
covenant
a promise (that the Jews believed the commandments formed between god and the Jewish people)
Iran
the plateaus and mountains of this land were the homeland of the persians
Darius
Cambyses' (Cyrus's son) successor, member of the Ten Thousand Immortals (Persian soldiers), extended Persian conquests in the east, divided Persian empire into 20 provinces, appointed an army leader and a tax collector for each province, sent inspectors known as the "King's Eyes and Ears" to all part of kingdom to avoid rebelions, used excellent road system and standardized coinage
babylonians
first ones to use Hammurabi's Code. their homeland was the capital of the 1st empire
Jews
monotheism. later slaves to the Egyptians (moses led them out of slavery)
Babylon
became the center of an empire again under chaldean rule, had great beauty (king's palace), highest building their was a seven tiered ziggurat
Cyrus
king of the Persians, defeated several neighboring kingdoms until all of the Fertile Crescent and most of Asia Minor was conquered, generosity (no looting or burning) toward conquered peoples (big reason for success), Babylon opened its gates to him, allowed Jews go back to Jerusalem
irrigation (ditches)
were dug by Sumerians. they carried river water to their fields
astronomy
the study of matter in outer space. the chaldeans' observations formed the basis for it
Israel
the Jewish peoples kingdom, the northern part of Canaan
civilization
one form of culture (includes the growth of cities, specialized workers, writing, advanced technology, and complex institutions)
fertile-crescent
was an area to plant and grow crops. rich soil
constellation
a group of stars (that the Babylonians used to mark the beginning of a new month on the Chaldean calendar)
constellation
a group of stars (that the Babylonians used to mark the beginning of a new month on the Chaldean calendar)
ziggurat
"mountain of god" massive three-tiered structure
Abraham
first Jew (with his family) in Canaan (Palestine)
assyria
had the most disciplined army the world had seen yet. capital was Ninevah (largest city of its day, held the worlds largest library). people of it were cruel, which was the cause of its fall
Nebuchadnezzar
chaldean king in Babylon, had amazing palace (hanging gardens of Babylon--won admiration of Greek visitors, who listed the garden as one of the Seven Wonders of the World), took conquered groups from their homelands and sent them to another part of the empire (conquered the Jews)
mesopotamia
"land between the rivers"; land between the Tigris and Euphrates
barter
no use of actual money. estimation of other products like grain (way of trade)
Assurbanipal
one of the last Assyrian kings. spread Assyrian power, but it was spread too thin. 21 years after his death, Nineveh fell
institutions
long lasting patterns of organization in a community, (a key trait of civilization)
ethical monotheism
the prophets emphasis on proper conduct
empire
a state in which the ruler also controls other lands
Zoroaster
thought of an answer to why there was so much evil in the world--2 spiritual armies fight for possession of a person's soul, soul would be judged according to what side they chose, belief in heaven in hell was more hopeful than Sumer's gloomy vision of the afterlife
Jerusalem
capital of the Jewish peoples kingdom of Israel
city-state
each city and its surroundings
Hammurabi
successful general, conquered all of Mesopotamia. created one of the world's first empires. created a single, uniform code to unify the diverse groups within his empire
Persians
homeland was Iran, ruled by Cyrus then Darius
Moses
led Jews out of Egypt. recieved the ten commandments.
Solomon
came after Saul and David all 3 of these kings united the Jews. led the Jews to victory in Canaan (kingdom of Israel, capital Jerusalem), built the holy temple

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