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US history post civil war


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***homestead act
-1862, gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $30. - population in west + -drives out Indians -own land for cheap
***populist party
-started in 1890 in Kansas -became known nationally at omaha platform ---direct election of us senators ---govt. ownership of RRs, telephone, & telegraph companies ---restriction of undesirable immigration (blacks) ---8 hr work day ---abolition of pinkerton detective agency- wanted ***---$ backed by silver- decline in power because of gold standard act of 1900
***new immigrants
-come from southern & eastern europe -to escape from autocratic govts. & monarchy- unemployment due to rise in U.S. exports --> viewed america as land of opportunity -illiterate and poor -create neighborhoods (Little Italy, etc.)
***pullman strike
-1894 - railroad workers upset by drastic wage cuts, but still same rent in company housing- The strike was led by socialist Eugene Debs but not supported by the American Federation of Labor - country paralyzed --> federal troops forced an end to the strike - strike highlighted both divisions within labor and the government's new willingness to use armed force to combat work stoppages
Sherman anit-trust act of 1890
-law that forbade trusts or combinations in business- landmark legislation because it was one of the first Congressional attempts to regulate big business for the public good- At first the law was mostly used to restrain trade unions as the courts tended to side with companies in legal cases- 1914 the Act was revised so it could more effectively be used against monopolistic corporations
-agricultural system that emerged after Civil War in which black and white farmers rented land and residences from a plantation owner in exchange for giving him a certain "share" of each year's crop- the dominant form of southern agriculture after the Civil War- landowners manipulated this system to keep tenants in perpetual debt and unable to leave their plantations- similar to slavery
jim crow laws
-Southern laws aimed to hold down freed blacks -voting requirements- poll tax- long literacy test -separate but "equal" facilities -plessy v. ferguson- jim crow laws are legal
plessy v. ferguson (1896)
-Basically... Jim crow laws are legal
closing of the frontier
-Census of 1890 that a frontier line was no longer discernible- declared that the frontier no longer existed- railroad and telegraph lines spanned the nation and army had subdued the Indians- Turner Thesis: claimed that America needed a new frontier
frederick jackson turner/"significance of the frontier in the american history"
-pioneers = agents of civilization and democracy -America needs a new frontier -frontier experience molded both nation and region -national character had beeen uniquely shaped by westward movement
plains indians (sioux)
-nomadic (weather is dry, can't farm) -rely on buffalo -compete with other tribes -horses = transportation (skilled)
reservation system
- allotted land with designated boundaries to Native American tribes in the west- beginning in 1850's -ending with the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887- Within those reservations, most land was used communally, rather than owned individually- The U.S. government encouraged (and some times violently) coerced Native Americans to stay on the reservations at all times -Indians don't understand ownership of land -native culture different from white --> problems
federal indian agents
corruption -in charge of indian reservations -violent
ethnicities of US army that's fighting indians
1/2 immigrants 20% Blacks
George Custer
-United States general who was killed along with all his command by the Sioux at the battle of Little Bighorn - 1839
Battle of Little Big Horn/"Custer's Last Stand"
-1839 -Black Hills = sacred ground -General George Custer's "last stand" = Custer killed along with his army by the Sioux
sitting bull
-chief of Sioux indians
- Apache Indians leader who fought U.S. soldiers to keep his land. -He led a revolt of 4,000 of his people after they were forced to move to a reservation in Arizona.
chief joseph/nez perce indians
-1877 - led his people on a 1700 mile, 3 month trek toward Canada to avoid being put on a reservation
-Plains (sioux) Indians rely on buffalo -white men almost extinct buffalo --> Indians fighting against each other for buffalo
battle of wounded knee
-1890- the massacre by U.S. soldiers of 300 unarmed Native Americans at Wounded Knee Creek, South Dakota - Indians doing outlawed indian rituals- - ended Indian wars-Sioux indians thought they were invincible by magic
dawes severalty act of 1887
-Sponsored by Senator Henry L Dawes - dissolved many tribes as legal entities- wiped out tribal ownership of land- set up individual Indian family heads with 160 free acres - If the Indians behaved like "good white settlers" then they would get full title to their holdings as well as citizenship after 25 years -attempted to assimilate the Indians with white men -made Indian rituals illegal
Industries of the west
-railroad -mining -agriculture -cattle driving
pikes peak
-place where gold was discovered- 1858 -sent minors on a frantic rush to the Dakota territory, Montana, and Colorado
mining industry taken over by corporations
-corporations start to control mining- use fancy machinery that makes mining more profitable -from the east (transported by railroad)
women on frontier
- women who lived on the frontier had to be soldiers fighting off indians, farmers/ranchers, parents and teachers
cattle driving
-railroad = demise of cattle driving
black, mexican, & white (ethnic mix)
mining towns and cattle towns
-mining boom towns from mining rush = no infrastructure- absence of law -cattle towns- same as boom towns
-hard time living on infertile land for 5 years
weather on great plains
-dry = lack of water -lack of wood/trees = lumber is very expensive -no wood --> no fences --> invention of barbed wire -sod houses (mud)
corruption and fraud with homestead act
-land was often infertile
mechanization of agriculture and effect on size of farms
-plow -oxen (break new soil) -farmers outproduce -land and machines often bought on credit -overproduction- supply & demand -prices fall- farmers work harder to break even
debts of farmers
-people who they bought the farming machines & land from
platform of 1892 (Omaha convention)
-Nebraska, 1892 -Populist party emerges nationally -populist ideals ---direct election of us senators ---govt. ownership of RRs, telephone, & telegraph companies ---restriction of undesirable immigration (blacks) ---8 hr work day ---abolition of pinkerton detective agency ---$ backed by silver
william jennings bryan
-populist -young, energetic, theatric speaker -"farmers' friend" --> loses election because his focus on silver doesn't resignate with urban voters- doesn't form alliances with other groups - Mckinley's campaign is well organized
cross of gold speech
-william jennings bryan -crucifixion to gold economy
william mcKinley
-well organized campaign (thanks to mark hanna) -wins election over william jennings bryan
mark hanna
-William McKinley's campaign advisor -well organized
gold standard act of 1900
-made gold the legal basis for United States currency, and helped spell the end for the Populist Party -conservative victory
effect of railroads
-unifies east & west -accelerates everything --> more people
Mary E. Lease
-attorney -suffragist -temperance supporter -*populist* -*Dorothy in the wizard of oz*
Coxey's Army
-Jacob Coxey and "army of commonwealth" march on washington -demand for unemployment relief
homestead strike
-1892 -Carnegie's steel workers go on strike because of pay cuts -long riot, ultimately put down by pinkertons
pinkerton detective agency
-hired as stike-breaking force -paid army for big businesses against labor unions -friend of govt. & big business
time zones
-created for RR -shows influence of RRs
federal land grants to railroads
self explanatory?
Central pacific
-West to East-Sierra Nevada-mountains -Chinese workers
union pacific
-East to West-Nebraska-flat land -Irish workers
promontory point, Utah
-railroads meet in Utah -1869 = completion of trans. RR
laborers on the railroads
-Union- Irish -Central- Chinese
the big four
Central pacific RR: -Leland Stanford- president -Collis P. Huntington- vice president -Mark Hopkins -Charles Crocker
leland stanford
-president of central pac. RR
collis p huntington
-Vice president of central pac. RR
sierra nevada vs. Prairie Land
advancements in railroad technology
-steel rail-stronger, lasts longer -air brakes -telegraph -double tracking *but, early train travel still not safe
corruption of railroads
-bribed officials -"stock watering"-inflate value of stock & sell for profit -kickbacks and rebates -free passes to press (won't say anything bad about RR)
pools (railroads)
-combination of RR companies -anti-competitive behavior -share profits
wabash st. louis & pacific railroad co. vs. Illinois
interstate commerce act of 1887
-prohibited rebates and pools -required railroads to publish rates -forbade discriminatin against shippers -outlawed charging more for short haul than for a long one over the same line
cornelius vanderbilt
-financed New York central RR- successful western RR
thomas edison
-electric lightbulb
andrew carnegie
-steel -vertical integration-own all steps at every stage from top to bottom to ensure quality throughout -J.P. Morgan buys out carnegie for $400 mill. - gives $ to charity
john d. rockefeller
-oil-owns 95% of oil companies-standard oil co. -horizontal integration-buys out or allies with competition to create a monopoly -trusts-giant monopolistic corps.
j. pierpoint morgan
vertical integration
-own all steps at every stage from top to bottom-can ensure quality throughout (carnegie)
horizontal integration
-buy out or ally with competition to create a monopoly (Rockefeller)
-mechanism by which one company grants control over its operations, through ownership of its stock, to another company- The Standard Oil Company became known for this practice in the 1870's as it eliminated its competition by taking control of smaller oil companies
standard oil company
Rockefeller-1870's- came to symbolize the trusts and monopolies of the Gilded Age- By 1877 Standard Oil controlled 95% of the oil refineries in the U.S. IT was also one of the first multinational corporations, and at times distributed more than half of the company's kerosene production outside the U.S- 1911, the Supreme Court ordered it to break up into several dozen smaller companies.
"gospel of wealth"
-when the poor --> very rich -god gave me this wealth = obligation to give back- helps society
social darwinists
-believe in "survival of the fittest"- wealthy had simply won a natural competition and owed nothing to the poor- Some social Darwinists also applied this theory to whole nations and races, explaining that powerful peoples were naturally endowed with gifts that allowed them to gain superiority over others- theory provided one of the popular justifications for U.S. imperial ventures like the Spanish-American war
"survival of the fittest"
-Social darwinists- explanation for new upper class
southern obstacles to industrialization
-less railroads (controlled by Northern companies)
textile industry in south
-only industry in south -piedmont population (mountain white-hillbillies) are the workers - work for less money - have no idea what unions are
effects of industrialization on Americans
-rise of wage-earner -reliance on time -women's jobs -foreign trade -social classes
gibson girl
-magazine image that showed the new image-meant woman could make it big and did have buying power- created by charles dana gibson- possibly 1st national standard for feminine beauty
rise of labor union
-self explanatory... -because of factory working conditions
corporate resistance to unions
-don't want to pay workers more, etc.
national labor union
-1866 -any skill level can join -fought for social reform- 8 hr. work day -decline due to 1870s econ. depression
knights of labor
-1881 -open to all genders & races -reform in safety & health codes -8 hr. work day -*believed in STRIKE* -haymarker square = end
haymarker square
-may day rally that turned violent when someone threw a bomb into the middle of the meeting, killing several dozen people & police- Eight anarchists were arrested for conspiracy contributing to the disorder- LINKED TO KNIGHTS OF LABOR-although evidence linking them to the bombing was thin- Four were executed, one committed suicide, and three were pardoned in 1893- LED TO *END OF* KNIGHTS OF LABOR
american federation of labor
-Group of labor unions -individuals belong to union, not the federation -skilled laborers -higher wages, better hrs. & working conditions -"closed shops"- business/factory that only hires union members -liked walk outs & boycotts
"closed shops"
business/factory that only hires union members
rise of the city
--more wage workers = more people in urban areas -skyscraper-more people in less space -european immigration -commuters- mass transit- people get to work quicker- bridges -expansion of cities -waste/trash- indoor plumbing -industrial jobs -slums- immigrants work in factories
wealthy leave to live in suburbs
pretty much
settlement houses
-run by middle-class native born women- settlement houses in immigrant neighborhoods provided housing, food, education, child care, cultural activities, and social connections for new arrivals to the United States- Many women, both native-born and immigrant, developed life-long passions for social activism in the settlement houses- Jane Addams's Hull House in Chicago and Lillian Wald's Henry Street Settlement in New York City were two of the most prominent
Hull House/Jane Addams
-Jane Addams founded hull house in chicago -for immigrants -counseling-day care- adult education
govt. lack of protection for immigrants
-govt. does nothing (immigrant increase = increase in disease & crime, slums)
rise of nativism
-Nativists are protestant, immigrants are catholic, orthodox, jewish- thought immigrants wouldn't assimilate -american protection association- lobbies for immigration restrictions -don't take my job!
american protective association (apa)
-1887 -lobby for immigration restrictions
labor unions and immigrants
-labor unions hate immigrants -little knowledge of unions
chinese exclusion act of 1882
-people think all that the chinese are doing is making opium & getting kids high -govt. bans chinese immigration

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