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Geography Test 1 (Part 1)


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Study of the earth as an integrated system
The solid shell of rocks forming the Earth's climate, floats on top of semi-liquid asthenosphere
Outermost layer of lithosphere
Plate tectonics
Powered from radioactivity in the Earth's core
Atmospheric circulation
Driven by Solar-heating (Convection)
Charles Tilly
The state provided protection (Mafia)
The State
May be highly self-serving/elite dominated or relatively responsive to needs of population. Maintains internal order, keeps out enemies. Recognized by other states as legitimate and vice versa
Limits, lines of separation- these define smuggling and contraband, often these spaces are expressions of territorial strategies
Control centers- nodes or spaces for diplomatic activities, unique landscapes
Unintegrated spaces, zones of conflict, outward extensions
Group of people with common culture, identity, or homeland
Nation state
State that claims to represent one nation and territorial "homeland"
State springs organically out of nation
Nations are largely invented by states
Where do regions come from
Largely from the wreckage of empires that spread enduring common culture over a large area
Where do regions come from
Historical layering process, empires, trade routes, religions, languages and social systems develop around eachother in repeated cycles of integration and collapse
Where do regions come from
Left behind cultural residue
Population distribution
Traditionally follows agricultural productivity. People increasingly gravitate towards centers of economic activity
Usually at equator, they are dark, and absorb more solar radiation and intensifies hadley cell updraft, which means more rain
Usually at subtropics, they are light and reflect more solar radiation, which intensifies the hadley cell downdraft. Which means less rain
Peak everything
Non-renewable resources become harder and harder to produce, the price becomes extremely high, and the demand drops
The Green Revolution
Massive expansion in global food production between late 1960's and 1980's, made possible by breeding new strands of wheat and corn
Associated with Mechanization
Associated with Irrigation
John Malthus
The power of population is so superior to the power in the earth to produce substinence for man, that premature death must in some shape or other visit the human race
Karl Marx
Technological progress overcomes all natural constraints, poverty and suffering are necessary to support the wealth of minority of the population
The interconnectedness of different parts of the world through common processes of economic, environmental, political and cultural change
Differences in wealth and technology Europe and Asia
There were none, but Chinese products were in demand all over the world,
Why did Europe take over the economy and not China
Chinese did not explore after one trip yielded nothing significant
Why did Europe take over the economy and not China
Intense military competition between numerous states
Why did Europe take over the economy and not China
Monarchs promoted development of cities to serve as centers of trade and manufacturing and could not tax the poor
Why did Europe take over the economy and not China
North Atlantic had terrible water, so shipbuilding was focused on, and then was used for exploration to Asia/Americas where trade networks evolved
International division of labor
Core economies establish monopilistic position in high value trading and manufacturing activities. Protect and subsidize national indistries, use manipulative trading strategies to destroy foreign competitors. Establish colonies.
Consolidate national economy internally
Standardize weights and measures. Mobilize natural resources. Promote development of science and technology. Consolidate "nation-state"

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