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Objective 4


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Brigham young
The successor to the Mormons after the death of Joseph Smith. He was responsible for the survival of the sect and its establishment in Utah, thereby populating the would-be state.
Comstock Lode
first discovered in 1858 by Henry Comstock, some of the most plentiful and valuable silver was found here, causing many Californians to migrate here, and settle Nevada.
Gold Rush
a period from1848 to 1856 when thousands of people came to California in order to search for gold.
Homestead Act
1862 - provided free land in the west as long as the person would settle there and make improvements in five years
Morrill Land-Grant Acts
gave federal land to the states to help finance agricultural colleges
Joseph Smith
religious leader who founded the Mormon Church in 1830 (1805-1844)
Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints
Oklahoma Land Rush
Land run in 1889, after government opens up the territory
Sod Houses
Houses made of mud, rock, water, and other things
African Americans who moved from post reconstruction South to Kansas.
A Century of Dishonor
Written by Helen Hunt Jackson, it detailed the injustices made to Native Americans during US expansion
the process of assimilating new ideas into an existing cognitive structure
Chief Joseph/Nez Perce
When the US govt attempted to remove them from the Oregon territory, violence broke out when Nez Perce warriors killed several white settlers without Chief Joseph's blessing
Battle of Little Bighorn
In 1876, Indian leaders Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse defeated Custer's troops who tried to force them back on to the reservation, Custer and all his men died
Dawes Severalty Act
Bill that promised Indians tracts of land to farm in order to assimilate them into white culture. The bill was resisted, uneffective, and disastrous to Indian tribes
Sand Creek Massacre
an attack on a village of sleeping Cheyenne Indians by a regiment of Colorado militiamen on 29 November 1864 that resulted in the death of more than 200 tribal members
Wounded Knee
In 1890, after killing Sitting Bull, the 7th Cavalry rounded up Sioux at this place in South Dakota and 300 Natives were murdered and only a baby survived.
a city on Lake Erie in western New York (near Niagara Falls)
Buffalo Soldiers
Nickname for African-American soldiers who fought in the wars against Native Americans living on the Great Plains during the 1870s
Cattle Drives
cowboys drove herds of cattle along trails to be shipped to the East by railroad.
Crazy Horse
a chief of the Sioux who resisted the invasion of the Black Hills and joined Sitting Bull in the defeat of General Custer at Little Bighorn (1849-1877)
Frederick Jackson Turner
United States historian who stressed the role of the western frontier in American history (1861-1951)
G.A Custer
United States general who was killed along with all his command by the Sioux at the battle of Little Bighorn (1839-1876)
Ghost Dance
a religious dance of native Americans looking for communication with the dead
Helen Hunt Jackson
United States writer of romantic novels about the unjust treatment of Native Americans (1830-1885)
Nez Perce'
Native American Tribe that will flee capture from U.S. Troops, who almost make it to Canada.
Promontory Point, Utah
Place where Union Pacific RR tracks connected to the Central Pacific tracks
the act of keeping back or setting aside for some future occasion
Sitting Bull
American Indian chief, he lead the victory of Little Bighorn
Transcontinental Railroad
Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California's railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west
He was a new prophet, who promised to restore the Sioux to their original dominance on the Plains if they performed the Ghost Dance
a monetary system in which the government would give citizens either gold or silver in exchange for paper currency or checks
an association formed by farmers in the last 1800s to make life better for farmers by sharing information about crops, prices, and supplies
Election of 1896
Republican William McKinley defeat Democrat William Jennings Bryan in a campaign considered by historians to be one of the most dramatic in American history.
Cross of Gold Speech
An impassioned address by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Deomcratic Convention, in which he attacked the "gold bugs" who insisted that U.S. currency be backed only with gold.
Interstate Commerce Act
prohibited rebates and pools, required railroads to publish rates, forbade discrimination against shippers, and outlawed charging more for short haul than for a long one over the same line
a party made up of farmers and laborers that wanted direct election of senators and an 8hr working day
Munn v. Illinois
(1877) United States Supreme Court Case that ended up allowing states to regulate business within their borders, including railroads
William Jennings Bryan
Politician who ran for president 1896, 1900 and 1908 under Democrats, was a pro-silverite and Populist leader
Colored Farmer Alliance
1888, formed when both black and white farmers faced great difficulties due to the rising price of farming and the decreasing profits which were coming from farming. At this time however the Southern Farmers' alliance which was currently in place, did not allow black farmers to join. Because of this, a group of black farmers decided to organize their own alliance.
a contraction of economic activity resulting in a decline of prices
Gold Standard
a monetary standard under which the basic unit of currency is defined by a stated quantity of gold
Graduated Income Tax
a method of taxation that taxes people at different rates depending on income
Name for Union paper money not backed by gold or silver. Value would fluctuate depending on status of the war (plural)
a general and progressive increase in prices
Mary Ellen Lease
A speaker for the Populist Party and the Farmer's Alliance. One of the founders of the Populist Party.
National Farmer Alliances
Groups dedicated to educating farmers on topics ranging from the latest farming method to land ownership.
Omaha Platform
the 1892 platform of the Populist party repudiating laissez-faire and demanding economic and political reform
Developed in the 1880s, a practice by which railroads would give money back to its favored customers, rather than charging them lower prices, so that it could appear to be charging a flat rate for everyone.
Wabash v. Illinois
Supreme court ruling that states could not regulate interstate commerce
Barbed Wire
Used to fence in land on the Great Plains, eventually leading to the end of the open frontier.
Mechanical Reaper
Machine invented by Cyrus McCormick that could harvest wheat quickly
a mill that is powered by the wind
Refrigerator Car
a freight car that is equipped with refrigeration system
Farmer's Cooperatives
an organization of farmers for marketing their products or buying supplies.
Dry Farming
a way of farming dry land in which seeds are planted deep in ground where there is some moisture

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