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CSET Prep Biology Subtest III

Terms

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Transformation
Prokaryotic cell takes up genetic information from surrounding environment
Transduction
Virus transfer genetic information from one prokaryotic cell to the next
Conjugation
Genes are transferred from one prokaryoic cell to the next
Photoautotrophs
An organism that uses light energy and converts this to food by synthesizing organic compunds from it
Photoheterotrphs
An organism that uses light to generate ATP but requires organic sources in order to obtain carbon
Chemoautotrophs
An organism that needs only carbon dioxide as a carbon source and can synthesize energy by oxidizing inorganic molecules
Chemoheterotrophs
An organism that must consume organic molecules for both energy and carbon
-most common
Obligate Aerobes
Organisms that require O2 in order to survive
Facultative Anaerobes
Organisms that use O2 if it's present but don't require it
Obligate anaerobes
Organisms that are poisoned by O2
Glycolipids
Oligosaccharides (carbohydrate sugars) that are bound to lipids
-similar to glycoproteins
both are used in cell cell signaling and are part of the phospholipid bi layer
Hypertonic
H2O with higher conc of solutes- cell loses H20 to surrouding envorpnment
Hypotonic
H20 with a lower concentration of solutes- cell sucks in water from environment
Facilitated diffusion
Gated channels that must be opened in order to aloow various ions through them- generally requires ATP
Active Transport
Some transport protiens acts pumps, miving substances across a membrane against the concentration gradient, energy for this is supplied by ATP
Ex: Sodium, potassium pump
Diffusion
-Passive transport
-Hydrophobic molecules and small uncharged polar molecules can diffuse through the lipid bilayer
Protein Role in Cell Signlaing
Transmembrane proteins such as glycoproteins play huge role in communicating between cells and passing info from ECM to inter cellular locations, do this by changin shape or aggregating when a specific ligand binds to it
-Membrane bound receptors
Ex: G-protein coupled receptors which active enzymes are 7 membered transmembrane proteins
Tyrosine Kinase Pathway
Transmembrane protein that consists of two receptor polypeptides, which when activated create a phosphorylated dimer which can then cause a phosphorylation cascade
Gated Ion Channels
Ligand binds to these channels changing their conformation and allowing ions to flow in to the cell
Role of Smooth ER in Secretion
Enzymes in smooth ER remove phosphate group from glucose which is the biproduct of glycogen hydrolysis which is a process done by the liver to remove wastes, this makes it possible for the glucose to enter the blood strream
The ER also adds hydroxyl groups to drugs and toxins to make them more soluble
Role of Rough ER in Secretion
Stores and helps to maintain secretory proteins formed by the ribosomes until they are ready to be shipped to the Golgi Apparatus for futher modification
Krebs Cycle
Takes place in the Mitochondria and completes respiration by changing pyruvate to CO2
Role of Mitochondrial Inner Wall in respiration
Contains ATP synthetase which ascts as a mill powered by H+ which turns ADP into ATP
Enzyme
A catalytic protein that changes the rate of reaction by decreasing the activation energy needed to start the reaction with out being consumed by it
Substrate
The reactant an enzyme acts on- enzymes are substrate specific
-Enzyme speceficity is due to the shape of the protein it is made of
Competetive Inhibition
A molecule mimics the substrate of a specific enzyme by binding the active site and preventing the real substrate to do so
Noncompetetive Inhibition
A molecule binds to another part of the enzyme creating a conformational change that prevents the substrate from binding to the active site
Feedback Inhibition
Build up of a product from some pathway inhibits further substrate binding in order to slow or stop the process
Anabolic Pathways
Consume energy in order to build larger things from smaller components
Ex: Synthesis of proteins from AA
-Endergonic processes
-Allos the body to grow and cells to differentiate
Catabolic Pathways
Metabolic processes of breaking down molecules in to smaller units
-necessary in order for anabolic processes to take place
Ex: Fatty acids-->carbon
Nucleic Acids-->nucleotides
Protiens--> AA
3 Main Functions of Nervous System
-Sensory input
-Integration
-Motor output
White Matter
Outter region of spinal chord consists of motor and sensory axons
Gray matter
Center of spinal chord which consists of cell bodies of motor neurons and interneurons
Glia
Supporting cells
-Astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in CNS
-Schwann cells in PNS
Ganglion
A cluster of nerve cells with a similar function, in the PNS
Myelin sheath
The support material around the neuron
Membrane potential
- inside cell (more K+, less Na+ and Cl-)
+ outside cell (less K+, more Na+ and Cl-)
Changes in the membrane potential lead ot nerve impulses- ion channels open or close to change potential which inties a nerve impulse
Homeostasis
Ability of animals to adjust internal environment in response to external environmental changes
Osmoregulation (water intake and secretion-excretory system), Thermoregulation
Negative Feedback Loop
A change in the variable being monitored that triggers the control mechanism to counteract further change in the same direction (once it is cold enough the body turns off the cooling system)
Positive Feedback Loop
Involves a change in some variable that triggers mechanisms that amplify the change
Hormones
-Digestive
-Osmoregulation (ADH-signals to hypothalamus to relax or constrict blood vessles)
-Reproductive
-Androgens (males)
- Estrogens (female)
- Progestins (female-uterus health)
Humoral Immunity
Involves B cell activation and results from the production of antibodies that circulate in the blood
-Circulateing antibodies defend against free bacteria, toxins, and viruses present in body fluid
2 Mechanisms of B Cell activation
-T Cell Independent
-T-Cell Dependent
B cell Function
Work by making antibodies against soluble antigens
Cell Mediated Immune Response
Defends against intracellular pathogens and cancer by binding to and lysing the infected cells or cancer cells
Euchromatin
Less tightly packed form of eukaryotic DNA in the chromosome- can be transcribed
Heterochromatin
More tightly packed DNA in the central region of the eukaryotic chromosome- can not easily by transcribed
Chiasma
The crossing over sturucture between two sister chromatids (Meiosis)
Mendel
Law of Segregation
Alternative trait factors that came together in the offspring will seperate again when the offspring produce gametes
Mendel
Law of Dominance
Hybrids between two alternative forms of a trait resemble one of the parental types
Mendel
Law of Independent Assortment
Difference for one trait are inherited independetly of differences for another trait
Genetic Drift
Random change in allelic frequency ina population
Hard-Weinberg Equilibrium
Sexual reproduction does not cause a decrease in genetic variation, instead the variation remains constant from one generation to the next
Mutualism
2 or more species interacting, all of which benefit from the interaction
Commensalism
2 or more species interacting, one of which benefits from the interaction while the others are neither harmed nor helped by it
Parasatism
Interaction of 2 or more species in which one species is harmed while the other species benefits

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