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High Pressure (Weather)
Good weather
Low Pressure (Weather)
Bad weather, possible precipitation
Fronts (weather)
Leading edge of air masses with different density, leads to a change in weather
Cold Front (weather)
wedges itself under warmer air and generally creates tubulence and precipitation ahead of and behind the front
Warm Front (weather)
Rainfall increases as it approaches, but clears as the front passes
Processed fuel from biological sources, burns much more cleanly that traditional diesel
Ex: Veg oil
Bio mass
Living or recently living biological material that may be burnt as fuel
A fractional distillate of petroleum, releases more enrgy than gasoline as well as producing more green house gases
Green Power
Ex: Anaerobic digestion, can produce biogas which is a mixture of methane and CO2 which can be used as fuel
Ex: wind, hydro, solar power
Geothermal Power
Uses the earths heat and harnesses it, usually by using a turbine that spins which creates electricity
Natural Gas
Methane from fossil fuels
Green House Effect
Absorption on infrared red radiation by green house gases (methane, CO2, etc) heats the earths surface as opposed to allowing it to escape the atmosphere
Organisms capable of converting inorganic materials to energy sources (food)
Ex: Photosynthetic plants, algae
Consume autotrophs
Biogeochemical Pathway
Same as the nutrient cycle
Energy of an Ecosystem is
On an open circuit becuas enew energy is constantly being absorbed by plants (not created) where as chemicals are not on an open circuit
Reservoirs (Biogeochemical Transfer)
Abiotic factors- "geo" pathways, Lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere-non-living)
Exchange pools (Biogeochemical Transfer)
Biotic factors- constantly moving- the living portion of the cycle
Atmospheric Composition
79% Nitrogen
21% Oxygen
Very little water vapor and hydrogen
Nitrogen Cycle
Moves through living and non-living, is part of amino acids, proteins, RNA and DNA
Oxygen Cycle
Stored in 3 main reservoirs: Atmosphere, biosphere, lithosphere (majority-below ground). Cycle driven mainly by photosynthesis
Carbon Cycle
Transfered between: Biosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere and amosphere
Light+CO2 +H2O --> sugar and O2

responsible for the majority of O2 in the atmosphere
Process by which an organism obtains energy by reacting O2 with glucose to give H20 C02 and ATP (energy)
relational position of an organism or population within a defined ecosystem
Characteristics of an Ecosystem
Abiotic(non-living) and Biotic (living)
Organic Chemicals
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Sulfur, Phosphorous, Nitrogen
Carbohydrates (Function in Body)
Sugars and their polymers (monosaccharides Ex: glucose C6H12O6)
Most important:
Startch-stored polysaccharide in plants
Glycogen- polysaccharide stored in animals
Cellulose- provides structural support to plants
Chitin- exoskeleton
Carbonyl group
Aldehyde vs Ketone
Aldehyde has the carbonyl group attached to the end (Ex: Glucose- most simple)
Ketone has the carbonyl group attached in the middle (Ex: Fructose- structural isomer of Glucose)
Glycosidic Linkage
A covalent bond formed between 2 monosaccharides
Ex: Used in the formation of Disaccharides
Lipids (Function in the body)
-fats (saturated and unsaturated), phospholipids, steroids
Saturated Fat
Has a carboxyll group head and 16-18 carbon long tail which stack together tightly at room temp- solid
Unsaturated Fat
Has thesame structure as saturated fats with the exception of having double bonds that create kinks in the carbon tail- this kink prevents them from fitting together tightly-liquid at room temp
Have a hydrophilic head and fatty acid (hydrophibic) tails- 2 of them.
- forms the phospholipid bilayer
Lipids with a carbon skeleton consisting of 4 fused rings
Proteins (Function in the body)
-Support, storage, transport, signaling, movement and defense
-Constructed of the same 20 AA (made in to polypeptides)
Nucleic Acids (Function in the body)
Amino acid sequence determined by genes
Central Dogma
DNA--Transcription->RNA--Translation-> Protein
Function of tRNA
Operates during translation by carrying an anticodon with a corresponding Amino Acid which it brings to the mRNA in the ribosomal complex where the AA binds to the growing polypeptide chain
Steps in Protein Elongation
-Codon recognition
-Peptide bond formation
Peptide Bond
A covalent bond formed between AA, Carboxyl end of one and the Amino group of the other
Production of mRNA
RNA transcript is spliced with exons introns and poly A tail to create the mRNA- mRNA then leaves the nucleus to go to the ribosome where it initiates translation
Protein molecules that assist in the proper folding of the protein
Anaerobic Respiration
Respiration in the absence of O2- cells use fermentation to complete the glycolitic pathway
w/out O2 the ehergy stored in pyruvate is unavailable to the cell
-Cell uses Nad+ as oxidizing agent that accepts e- from food
Splitting of glucose from food sources to pyruvate
This is the one metabolic pathway that occurs in all living cells and serves as the starting point for fermentation or aerobic respiration.
Aerobic Respiration
Cellular respiration
In the presence of O2 which converts pyruvate to Acetyl CoA which is further oxidized in the Krebs Cycle
-Much more effecient production of ATP than anaerobic respiration
-Also uses NAD+ as oxidizing agent
Calvin Cycle
Part of the process of photosynthesis which reduces fixed carbon from CO2 to carbohydrate by the addition of e-
-Does not require light directly
-ADP is also phosphorylated to produce ATP
The addtion of a phosphate group to
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Active in membrane transport and other synthetic metabolic pathways
Has both rough (has attached ribosomes) and smooth regions
Region where the cells microtubules are intiated
specialized metbolic functions
Projections at the edge of the cell that increas the surface area of the cell
Reinforces cell shape and aids in movement of the cell
Made of proteins
-Intermediate fillaments
Digestive organelle
Site of cellular respiration-ATP production
Present in both plant and animal cells
Plasma Membrane
Membrane enclosing the cell
Golgi Apparatus
The shipping a recieving of cellular products
-proteins are shipped here from the ribosomes located on the ER, here they are motified on the cis facing side and then transferred to trans side where they are shipped out to different parts of the cell
Free floating or attached to ER
Part of protein production
Non-membranous organelle involved in the production of ribosomes
Inside of the nucleus
Material consisting of DNA and proteins, visible as individual chromosomes in a dividing cell- inside nucleus
Plant Cells do not have...
Plants Cells have that Animal Cells don't
Central Vacuole-large organelle that functions as storage and breaks down waste products
Cell wall
Plasmodesmata- pores in the cell wall that allow cells to connect to one another
ATP Hydrolysis
Is an exergonic reaction in which a phosphate is removed and is turned in to ADP, this conversion releases an molecule of inorganic phosphate and energy
The recipient of this phosphat group undergoes an endergonic reaction in which it become phosphorylated
In this sense ATP is a renewable source (ADP is starting compund, add a phosphate to become ATP again)
Endergonic reaction
A nonspontaneous reaction in which energy is used up from the surroundings
Exergonic Reaction
energy is released in to the surrounding atmosphere
Division of cells to produce identical somatic cells
Prophase (Mitosis)
-Chromatin fibers become more tightly wound
-2 sister chromatids are observable
-Mitotic spindles begin to form
-Centrosomes move away from each other
-Nuclear membrane breaks down
-Kinetochore forms on each of the sister chromatids
Metaphase (Mitosis)
-Centrosomes are on opposite sides of the cell
-Chromosomes align in the center along the metaphase (equatorial plate)
-Microtubule spindles are attached to kinetochores
Anaphase (Mitosis)
Paired Centromeres are pulled apart seperating the sister chromatids
Telophase (Mitosis)
Daughter cell nuclei form at each pole
Cytokenesis (Mitosis)
Cytoplasm divides and the two cells seperate into 2n cells
The production of haploid gametes in the reproductive organs
-same processes as mitosis only they happen twice and crossing over occurs during metaphase 2 when the sister chromatids align
Binary Fission
Reproductive process used by most eukaryotes that involves copying linear DNA from one orgin, the cell divides and grows
Levels of Organization
Flowering plant
3 Basic Cell Types in Plant Tissues
Parenchyma- Least specialized
Collenchyma- help support the young growth of the plant
Schlerenchyma- very rigid cells that act as support
Human Body Systems
Endocrine- hormones
Muscle and skeletal
Vascular Plants
- Vascular tissues allow them to grow to a larger size
-Principle generation is a sporophyte-diploid
Non-vascular Plants
Ex: Mosses and algae
-Without the vascular system they are un able to move H20 and must remain small
-Have no root stem or leaves
-have no xylem of Phloem
Carries H2O (in vascular plants) and inorganice molecules up to the leaves from the roots
In vascular plants
-Carries organic solutes through plant
Plant Transport
-Chemicals are moved by using chemiosmosis (high to low gradient)
-Osmosis is also used to transport H2O
H2O Potential in Plants
-Water travels away from the higher water potential
-water potential increases as we travel from the roots to the leaves of a plant
-water is drawn to leaves due to their loss of H2O from transpiration (lowers H2O potential)
-The low water potential in the roots allows them to pull moisture from the soil
evaporative loss of H20 form leaves
Diploid plant that produces haploid spores by meiosis
Adult male and femlae plants
Male reproductive organs on a flower
-Contains the anther which is the pollen sac pruducer and the filament which is the long stalk that the anther sits on top of
Female reproductive organs of the plant
-Contains an ovary at it's base
-Center portion is the stigma which is a sticky landing pad that catches floating pollen (sperm)
Plant Pollination
-Happens when pollen from the anther lands on the stigma and travels in to the ovary
-Zygote becomes the embryo, the ovule containing the embryo becomes the seed and the entore ovary becomes the fruit which contians one or more seeds
Sound Wave Chracteristics
-Can travel through almost any material
- Prpogates as waves of alternating pressure which displace the material that they are tarveling through
- Measured in Pascals
Longitudinal Waves
Travel parallel to the direction of the propagation of the wave
The number of times that a repeated event happens within a certain time period
The distance between repeating units of a wave (crest to crest)
The interval of time between the recurrence of phases (how long does it take for one wavelength to pass)
The non negative scalar measure of a waves magnitude of oscillation- the distance above the zero line the crest of the wave travels
Light Wave Characteristics
electromagnetic radiation which is visible to the eye
-Intensity is the measure of the amplitude
-Color is the measure of the frequency (wavelength)
-Polarization is the angle of the vibration
-All light travels at 299,762,458 m/s
-Self propogating transverse (at right angles to one another) osciallting waves of electrical and magnetic fields
Visible Spectrum of Light
380-780 nm
Wavelength of Red Light
700 nm, longest wavelength
Wavelength of Blue/Violet Light
400nm, short wavelength
Body waves (Seismic waves)
Travel through the earth and are bent or refracted by different densities within the earths crust
2 Types of Body waves
P waves- Longitudinal (Compression waves) which compress and dilate the earth in the direction of propogation, primary waves and are less destructive
S Waves- Transverse waves which displace the earth perpendicular to the propagation of the wave- have a larger amplitude and are much more destructive
Surface waves
Analagous to water waves and travel just under the earths surface, travel more slowly than body waves and can be the most destructive
The change in direction of a wave due to a change in its speed- generally seen when a wave passes from one medium to another, altering the waves phase velocity, increasing or decreasing its wavelength
Absorption of Light
A material that absorbs blue, green and yellow light will be what color under white light?
Transmittance (light)
The fraction of incident light at a specified wavelength that passesthrough a sample
Newton's 1st Law
Law of Inertia: A body at rest will remain at rest unless acted upon by some outside force (same is true for a body at rest)
-An object with no net force acting on it retains a contstant velocity
Newton's 2nd Law
Law of Acceleration: The rate of change of momentum of a body is directly proportional to the impressed for and takes place in the direction in which the force acts
Newton's 3rd Law
Law of Reciprocal Actions: When A exerts a force on B, B is simultaneously exerting an equal an opposite force on A
Law of Universal Gravitation
m1 and m2 are the masses of the 2 objects
r= the distance between the two objects
Atmospheric Pressure
The measure of hydrostatic pressure caused by the weight of air above the point of measurement
Ex: Low pressure areas have less atmospheric mass above them- increased elevation
Hydrostatic Pressure
Pressure due to the weight of a fluid
mass X velocity
Hooke's Law
Measures tension
F= restoring force exerted by the spring
x= the distance the spring is stretched
k= spring constant
Ohm's Law
Has to do with measuring electrical current
I= current
v= potential difference
r= constant of resistance
caused by the movement of electrically charged particles
A type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by a flow of electrical current
-The amount of magnetism can easily be controlled by adjusting the amount of electrical current that is being applied
Electric Current Generators
A device that creates electrical energy by converting mechanical energy by using electro magnetic induction (Production of an electrical potential difference which then travels across a conductor)
-A strong magnetic field is placed in the generator, rotating windings turnd that mechanical energy into a current the current is already present in the wires
Transformer (Electricity)
Electrical device thattransfers energy from one circuit to another by magnetic coupling
Motor (electricity)
Converts electrical energy in to kinetic energy (opposite of a generator)
Difference of electrical potential between two points on an electrical circuit- ability to push electrons from one point to another
- usually measured from a ground or unchanging part of the circuit
-additive force
Current (Electricity)
The flow of electrical charge
Heat flow
Alwasy from hot to cool
The transfer of thermal energy through free electron diffucion or photon vibration without a flow of the material medium
-Happens when adjacent atoms vibrate against one another (mainly in solids ie metals)
Transfer of heat through electromagnetic radiation
-No medium is necessary
Chemical reaction between a fuel and Oxygen that produces heat and/or light in the form of flames
Atomic #
# of protons
Atomic Mass
Protons+ neutrons
ph lower than 7
has a higher concentration of H+
e- pair acceptor
ph above 7
has a lower concentration of H+
Can accept protons
Is an e- pair donor
each interval in the pH scale indicates a ten fold decrease or increase in the [H+]
Atomic Trends
Atomic Radius
Increases down a group and from right to left in a period
Atomic Trends
Ionization Energy
Increases up a group and from left to right in a period
Atomic Trends
Nuclear Charge
Increases down a group and from left to right in a period
Atomic Trends
Electronegativity (Polarity)
Increases down a group and from left to right

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