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Psych 315 Final


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Emotional Intelligence
-being able to regulate your own emotions, motivate yourself -understand your own emotions and other\'s -best indicator of success
Emotion is comprised of
a) physiological factors, including hr b) subjective feelings 3) the cognitions that may elicit or accompany subjective feelings d) the desire to take action, including the desire to escape, approach or change people or tings in the environment
Discrete Emotions Theory
Which argues that emotions are innate, that each emotion is packaged with a specific set of bodilly and facial reactions, and the distinct emotions are evident from very early in life
Functionalist Approach
understanding emotional development -basic function of emotions is to promote action toward achieving a goal in a given context
Social Smiles
smiles directed toward people, -evolutionary to encourage caregivers
fear of strangers
intensifies around age 2, babies use this expression to communicate danger to parents because they are not able to escape
Self-Conscious Emotions
Embarrassment, pride, guilt, shame -they relate to our sense of self and our consciousness of others\' reactions to us
Guilt vs Shame
Guilt: associated with empathy for others and involves feelings of remorse and regret about one\'s behavior Shame: not related to concern about others, their focus is on themselves; they feel exposed
Emotional Self-Regulation (4steps)
1) internal feeling states (subjective experience of emotion) 2) emotion-related cognitions: thoughts about what one wants 3)emotion-related physiological processes that can change as a result of one\'s feeling state 4) emotion-related behavior (actions or facial behavior)
When do children start to emotionally self-regulate?
-6 months = first signs (touching themselves to calm) -1 and 2 start to distract themselves -eventually talk about problems rather than pouting etc.
Social Competence
a set of skillls that help individuals achieve their personal goals in social interactions while maintaining positive relationships with others -these children delay gratification -well-adjusted
constitutionally based individual differences in emotional, motor and attentional reactivity and self-regulationthat demonstrate consistency across situations as well as relative stability over time
Outline the 3 types of baby temperament
1) easy babies: adjust readily to new situations, quickly establish a daily routine such as sleeping and eating, generally cheerful 2) Difficult Babies: slow to adjust, tend to react neg and intesely to novel situations and stimuli, irregular in routines 3) slow to warm up babies: somewhat difficult at first but became easier over time as they had repeated contact with new objects, people and situations
Thomas & Chess: 6 dimensions of temperament
1. fearful distress- time to adjust 2. irritable distress: fussiness, angers and frustration 3. Activity level: movement 4. Positive Affect: smiling laughter 5. Attention Span and Persistence: duration of orienting 6. Rhythmicity- regularity in child\'s bodily functions
Behavioral Inhibition & Temperament
Children who are high tend to be fearful and and restrained, higher prevalence of depression, anxiety, phobias and social withdrwawal
Goodness of fit
the degree to which an individual\'s temperament is compatible with the demands and expectations of his or her social environment -parents may re-enforce or discourage behavior that affects child\'s temperament
the pattern of behavioral and emptional propensities, beliefs, and interests and intellectual capacities that characterize an individual. Personality has its roots in temperament but is shaped by interactions with the social and physical world
the process through which children acquire the values, standards, skills, knowledge and behaviors that are regarded as appropriate for their present and future role in their particular culture
Social Referencing
-8-12 months: the use of a parents\' or other adult\'s facial expression or vocal cues to decide how to deal with novel, ambiguous or possibly threatening situations
Display Rules
a social group\'s informal norms about when, where, and how much one should show emotions and when and where displays of emotion should be suppressed or masked by displays of other emotions -ex: bad present question -can have prosocial or self-protected motives
Theories of emotion
Common Sense View Stimuli  Emotion- Physiological Changes James-Lange View Stimuli  Physiological Changes  Emotion Interpretive View Stimuli  Physiological Changes  Interpretation  Emotion
when can babies differentiate between emotions
7-12 months proof: social referencing, vocal-face matching task
when can children understand mixed emotions?
8-10 years old
Bowlby\'s theory of attachment
His attachment theory posits that children are biologically predisposed to develop attachments with caregivers as a means of increasing the chances of their own survival
Four phases of attachment
1. Pre-attachment phase (birth to 6 weeks) Infants produce innate signals that bring others to their side and are comforted by the interaction that follows 2. Attachment-in-the-making (6 weeks to 6-8 months) The phase in which infants begin to respond preferentially to familiar people 3. Clear-cut attachment (b/t 6-8 months and 1.5 -2 years) Infants actively seek contact with their regular caregivers and typically showing separation protest or distress when the caregiver departs 4. Reciprocal relationships (from 1.5-2 years on) Children take an active role in developing working partnerships with their caregivers
Attachment Categories
Secure (~ 2/3 of American middle class; Type B) Infants actively seek proximity to caregivers upon reunion Communicate their feelings of stress and distress openly and then readily return to play Insecure-Resistant/Ambivalent (~15%; Type C) Infants who become extremely distressed when the caregiver departs but are ambivalent or resistant on her return. They run to her but then arch away or push her. Insecure-Avoidant (~20%; Type A) Indifferent toward or even avoid caregiver (e.g., infants do not seem distressed during separation and ignore caregiver upon return) Disorganized/Disoriented (~5% of insecurely attached; Type D) No consistent way of coping with the stress Changeable, confused behavior, or even contradictory (e.g., exhibit fear toward mom but still approach)
Types of caregivers that dictate attachment
“Secure” parenting 1) Sensitivity; 2) Positive attitude, affectionate; 3) Support/attentiveness; 4) Stimulation “Avoidant” parenting 1) Less of “secure” attributes; 2) Aversion to bodily contact; 3) Rejecting; 4) More angry and yet less emotional expression overall “Ambivalent” parenting 1) Less of “secure” attributes; 2) anxious; 3) More evidence of difficult temperament
Long term effects of insecure attachment
Insecure Age 2-3: Socially and emotionally withdrawn, hesitant to initiate play behaviors with peers, less curious, less interested in learning Age 11-15: Poor peer relations, fewer close friendships, more likely to have psychopathological symptoms Avoidant = more likely to display “deviant” behaviors (disruption/disobedience) Ambivalent = easily frustrated, less competent
Functions of families
1. survival of offspring 2. economic function 3. cultural training
Parents\' role in socialization
1. parents as direct instructors 2. parents as indirect socializers 3. parents as social managers
What are the four parenting styles
1. Authoritative 2. Authoritarian 3. Permissive 4. Rejecting-Neglecting
Authoritative parenting
-demanding, warm responsive, firm about limits - consistent punishment , attentive to child\'s concerns
-tend to be cold and unresponsive -high in control and demandingness -expect children to comply to demands without question -these children tend to be low in social and academic competence, unhappy and unfriendly and low in self-confidence
Permissive parenting
responsive to their child\'s needs and wishes and are lenient with them -do not require children to regulate themselves in appropriate ways - these children are lacking self-control and low in school achievement
Rejecting-Neglecting Parenting
-disengaged, low in demandingness and responsiveness to needs -do not set limits or monitor children -leads to antisocial disorder, low academic competence, substance abuse etc.
Cultural differences in parenting styles
-Authoritarian Asian parenting does not have the negative effects that it does in euro-americans
Bidirectionality of parent-child interactions
reinforces and perpetuates each party\'s behavior
SES effect on parenting styles
lower SES correlated with more authoritarian, controlling parenting
Define peers
individuals who are close in age and status
Piaget\'s theory on peers
this \"closeness\" allows children to be mreo open and spontaneous wiht peers when expresing their ideas and beliefs than with adults
Vygotsky\'s view of peers
help them develop new cognitive skill and capacities
intimate, reciprocated positive relationship between two people
Reciprocated Best Friendships
a friendship in which two children view one another as best or close friends -victimized children fare better if they have one
Friends role in cognitive exercises
Elaborate and criticize thus enhancing child\'s creativity
Sex differences in reporting about friendships
girls report more dependence on friends for advice or help, and sharing confidences and more likely to co-ruminate(may promote anxiety and depression)
Results of having a reciprocated best friendship
-higher levels of personal and professional success
Children make friends with those who have similar
-age -sex -cognitive maturity -self-perceptions -similar levels of negative emotions
friendship groups that children voluntarily form or join themselves -middle childhood: same age and sex with 3-9 ppl - many memer of a clique do not view each other as close friends -tend to be like-minded in academic motivation -groups relatively unstable
groups of people who have similar stereotyped reputation ex: druggies, populars
loosely organized group of adolescents or young adults who identify as a group and often engage in illegal activities -provide members with a sense of belonging -
Sociometric Status
the degree to whihch the children are liked or disliked by their peers as a group -5 groups: popular, rejected, neglected, average, controversial
Popular children
-tend to have a number of social skills in common: good at initiating interaction and maintaining relationships, unlikely to draw unwarranted attention to themselves -cooperative, friendly, -those who are perceived as \"popular\" by peers are different and tend to be higher in aggression, especially in order to gain a goal
relational aggression
a kind o aggression that involves exclusion from the social group or attempting to do harm to another\'s relationship with others. It includes spreading rumors about peers, witholding friendships to inflict harm, and ignoring and excluding peers when a child is angry or wants his or her own way
-two categories: aggressive and non-aggressive -Aggressive-rejected: 1/2 prone to hostile and threatening behavior, physical aggression, disruptive behavior and delinquency -Some are controversial: those who are liked by some and disliked by others -Withdrawn-rejected: socially withdrawn and wary, they have a tendency to isolate themselves and exhibit negative emotions
Neglected children
-not liked or disliked -less sociable and disruptive than the average children -they appear neglected because they are simply not noticed by their peers
Controversial peers
liked by some, disliked by others -aggressive, disruptive and anger prone but also cooperative and and good at sports, humourous for ecamole
Social skills training
training programs designed to help rejected children gain peer acceptance; they are based on the assumption that rejected children lack important knowledge and skills that promote positive interaction with peers
Cultural differences in popularity in China versus N america
-socially rejected children in China are those who are aggressive and disruptive and in most countries popular and prosocial -in China children who are shy and sensitive are viewed by teachers as socially competent and as leaders and liked by their peers (unlike Western cultures)
Victimized children & consequences
children who are targets of their peers\' aggression and demeaning behavior -increases victim\'s aggression, withdrawal, depression and loneliness, problems of avoidance of school
Outline the changes in children\'s friendships
Age 6-8: define friendship primarily on the basis of actual activities and view friends in terms of rewards and costs Early school years - adolescence: experience and define friendships in terms of mutual liking, closeness, and loyalty etc. Adolescents: more likely to use friendship as a context for self-exploration and working out personal problems
Socially reticent
Reticence: onlooker and unoccupied behavior Associated with peer rejection such as overt refusal and disagreement But, may be associated with positive responses such as approval in some cultures (e.g., in Chinese children)
Outcomes of being withdrawn as a child
Withdrawn boys: as adults, have less stable careers and marriages than their peers Withdrawn girls: as adults, less likely than other women to have careers outside the home
Piaget\'s theory of moral development
-changes from a rigid acceptance of the dictates and rules of authorities to an appreciation that moral rules are a product of social interaction and thus modifiable -Stages; Morality of constraint, transitional period, stage of autonumous morality/relativism
Morality of constraint
(7-8) -regard duties to others as unchangeable \"givens\' -autthorities punishments are always justified
Transitional Period
8-10 -children typically have more interactions with peers and learn more egalitarian interactions -children take an active role
Autonomous Morality
11-12 children no longer accept blind obedience -believe punishments should fit the crime
criticism of Piaget\'s moral development theory
-whether childrens interaction in the transitional stage is actually cooperative
Kohlberg\'s 3 stages of moral development
Preconventional Conventional Postconventional
Preconventional moral stage
Kohlberg Self-centered, focusing on getting rewards and avoiding punishment Stage 1- Punishment and obedience: What is seen as right is obedience to authorities Stage 2 - Instrumental and exchange: Morality is defined in terms of one’s own best interest or a tit-for-tat exchange of benefits
Conventional moral stage
Centered on social relationships Stage 3 - Mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and conformity: Good behavior is doing what is expected by people close to the person or by fulfilling the expectations of a social role Stage 4 - Social system and conscience: Right behavior involves fulfilling one’s duties, upholding laws, and contributing to society or one’s group Kohlberg
Postconventional moral development
Involved with ideals, focusing on moral principles Stage 5 - Social contract or individual rights: Right behavior involves upholding rules that are in the best interest of the group Stage 6 - Universal ethical principles: Values and rights are universally right and must be upheld regardless of majority opinion Kohlberg
Kohlberg\'s belief on how these stages occur
-everyone passes through in the same order, but not everyone reaches the highest levels
3 critiques of Kohlberg\'s moral development theory
1. cultural differences (over obedience etc.) 2. that stages are in fact discontinuous 3. sex differences- K says that males value principles off justice and rights more often, and females value caring, responsibility for others etc
Prosocial behavior
voluntary behavior intended to benefit another such as helping, sharing and comforting others
Moral judgements vs social conventional judgments vs personal judgments
-pertain to issues of right and wrong, fairness and justice -pertain to customers or regulations intended to ensure social coordination and organization, ex dress, table manners -pertains to actions in which individual preferences are the main consideration
an internal regulatory mechanism that increases the individual\'s ability to conform with standards of conduct accepted in their culture
altruistic prosocial behavior is rooted in
empathy & sympathy
what is empathy?
an emotional reaction to another person’s emotional state or condition that is similar to that person’s state or condition
what is sympathy?
is the feeling of concern for another person in reaction to that person’s emotional state or condition
Nature versus nurture & prosocial behavior
Nature (genetic factors): Identical twins show modest amounts of similarity in tendency to engage in prosocial acts than fraternal twins Most likely due to differences in temperament related to: Amount of negative emotion Regulation of emotion Assertiveness
List the kinds of antisocial behavior
Physical vs. Relational Instrumental vs. Reactive Direct harm to people vs. Harm to property, rule violations
When can you see the first signs of antisocial behavior
-18 months= language and aggression emerges
Classic inconsistency of aggression development
-many stay high or medium in aggression from childhood-adolescence to adulthood -however, most have the most noticeable antisocial behavior when adolescence and get over it, and only 5% have personality disorders
Moffitts antisocial behavior theory
-2 pathways Life-course persistent pathway Adolescence-limited pathway (though some “get stuck” and cannot get out) -equifinality:The same pathological outcome can be caused by multiple, different pathways
3 factors that put a child at risk for antisocial pd
Genetic factors Obstetric problems Smoking/drug/alcohol use during pregnancy
life course persistent pathways for antisocial disorder: 3 vulnerabilities
Tend to have more difficult, harder to console temperaments Tend to have reduced verbal ability and reduction in executive functions Contributes to more harsh or inconsistent discipline, poor parental monitoring (evocative effects)
adolescence limited pathway & antisocial disorder
The gap causes tension for adolescents – they want to be independent and autonomous but society places restraint and control on them Those adolescents who aren’t antisocial see other antisocial adolescents as having independence and having the stuff they want and they try to mimic their behaviour in order to get autonomy and control over their own lives -Again, they get social reinforcement as well as reinforcement from the increased freedom As they get older they begin to value other things (attachment, academic pursuits, relationships, high paying jobs, family) They realize that continuing in antisocial behaviour will not allow them to get these things that they really want They then stop antisocial behavior – they give it up because they begin to get rewarded in different ways But, some don’t “get out”
Emphasized the study of observable and quantifiable aspects of behavior and excludes subjective phenomena (e.g., emotions, thoughts, motives) Heavily influenced by Ivan Pavlov’s work on conditioning Concluded that a child’s development is controlled by environmental conditions --particularly rewards and punishments Emphasized nurture
Cognitive Development
Moving beyond Behaviorism… Famous for founding the field of cognitive development and providing one of the broadest theories to ever account for the changes in children’s thinking. Much more on Piaget later in the course
Is development continuous or discontinuous?
It depends on⬦ How you look at it. How often you look at it. What aspect of development you study
Infant Directed Talk
(IDT) higher pitch, extremes in intonation warm, affectionate tone, exaggereated facial expression
Holophrastic period
1year -can say only one word at a time -overextension error
Vocabulary explosion at what age?
18 months
telegraphic speech
2nd year -short sentences with all the important words
around 4 years of age in language development
overregularizations -irregular forms as if they were regular
Nativists & language development
innate knowledge of universal grammar -language learning is supported by language specific skills
Interactionist theories about language developmetn
the large degree infants and young children use a host of pragmatic cues to figure out what others are saying
Connectionist theory of language
language can develop in the absence of knowledge and that language learning requires only powerful general-purpose cognitive mechanisms
Category hierarchies are formed at what age?
2-3 animal-dog-poodle
Understanding another\'s perspective occurs at what age
around 5

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