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soc 280


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Absolute poverty
a condition that exists when people do not have the means to secure the most basic necessities of life.
prejudice and discr. on the basis of age
Age stratification
inequalities, differences, segregation, or conflict between age groups.
Class system
a system of social inequality based on the ownership and control of resources and on the type of work people do.
two adults living together in a sexual relationship without being legally married.
Compulsory heterosexuality
institutionalized practices that presume women are innately sexually oriented to men and men are too women, and that supports privileges associated with heterosexuality
actions or practices of dominant group members that have a harmful impact on members of subordinate groups.
Domestic partnership
a household partnership in which an unmarried couple lives together in a committed, sexually intimate relationship and is granted the same rights and benefits accorded to a married couple.
Dominant group
has advantages and superior resources and rights in society.
the assumption that one’s own group and way of life are superior to all others.
Feminization of poverty
the trend whereby women are disproportionately represented among individuals living in poverty.
culturally and socially constructed differences between females and males that are based on meanings, beliefs, and practices that a group or society associates with feminitey or maculinity
Gender belief system
social basis for gender roles, the idea of masculinity and femininity that are held to be valid in a society.
Gender bias
a situation in which favoritism is shown to one gender.
Gender institution
total pattern of gender relations embedded in societal institions
Gender roles
rights, responsibilities, expectations, and relationships of men and women in society.
Gender stratification
he hierarchical distribution of economic and social resources along the lines of gender.
Glass ceiling
The thing women run into when trying to climb the corporate ladder.
Glass escalator
the thing men use to pass women on the corporate ladder.
Hate crime
a physical attack against a person because of assumptions regarding their racial group, ethnicity, religion, disability, sexual orientation, national origin or ancestry.
institutionalized set of behaviors and beliefs that presume heterosexuality to be the only form of acceptable sexual expression
excessive fear or intolerance for homosexuality.
the condition of being unequal
Individual discrimination
one on one acts by members of the dominant group that harm members of the subordinate group or their property.
Institutional discrimination
day to day practices of orgs. And inst. That have a harmful impact on members of the subordinate groups.
Life chances
the extent to which individuals have access to important societal resources such as food, clothing, shelter, education, and health care.
Macrolevel analysis
focuses on social processes occurring at the societal level, especially in large scale organizations and major social institutions such as politics, government, and the economy.
Microlevel analysis
focuses on small-group relations ands social interactions among individuals.
a hierarchical system of social organizations in which cultural, political, and economic structures are controlled by men.
Poverty rate
the proportion of the population whose income falls below the government’s official poverty line – the level of income below which a family of a given size is considered to be poor.
Poverty threshold
The official federal poverty measure. Using a formula, that incorporates the number of members in a household, and is adjusted each year for cost of living increases. This threshold is an income level amount; if an individual/family earns less than that determined amount, that individual/family is considered poor.
a negative attitude based on faulty generalizations about members of selected racial and ethnic groups.
a set of attitudes, beliefs, and practices used to justify the superior treatment of one racial or ethnic group and the inferior treatment of another racial or ethnic group.
biological difference between men and women
the subordination of one sex, usually female, based on the assumed superiority of the other sex.
Sexual harassment
unwanted sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, or other verbal or physical conduct of sexual nature.
Sexual orientation
a preference for emotional-sexual relationships with individuals of the same sex, opposite sex, or both
attitudes, beliefs, and practices related to sexual attraction and intimate relationships with others
Social problem
a social condition or a pattern of behavior that harms some individuals or all people in a society and that sufficient people warrant change.
Social stratification
the hierarchical arrangement of large social groups on the basis of their control over basic resources.
the process by which society influences members to internalize attitudes, beliefs, values and expectations
Sociological Imagination
the ability to see the relationship between individual experiences and the larger society.
overgeneralizations about the appearance, behavior, or other characteristics of all members of a group.
Subordinate group
disadvantaged and subjected to unequal treatment by majority group because of physical or cultural characteristics and regard themselves as objects of collective discr.
Wage gap
the disparity between women’s and men’s earnings

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