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upper chambers of heart
membrane lining the cavities of heart
membrane forming the outer layer of the heart
interatrial septum
partition between R and L atrium
interventricular septum
partition between R and L ventricle
heart muscle
protective sac enclosing the heart composed of two layers with fluid between
lower R and L chambers of heart
heart valves
structures within heart that open and close with the heartbeat to regulate the one way flow of blood
aortic valve
heart valve btwn L ventricle and aorta
mitral or bicuspid valve
heart valve btwn L atrium and L ventrical
pulmonary semilunar valve
heart valve opening from the R ventricle to the pulmonary artery
tricuspic valve
valve between the right atrium and right ventrical
valves of the veins
valves located at intervals within the lining of veins esp in the legs which constrict with muscle action to move the blood returning to the heart
vessels that carry blood from the heart to arterioles
large artery that is the main trunk of the arterial system brancing from the left ventricle
small vessels that recive vlood from the arteries
tiny vessels that join arterioles and venules
small vessels that gather blood from the capillaries into the veins
vessels that carry blood to the heart from venules
systemic circulation
circ of blood thruout body thru arteries, arteriolds, capillaries, venules, and veins to deliver o2 and nutrients to body tissues
coronary circulation
circ of blood thru the coronary blood vessels to deliver o2 and nutrients to the heart muscles tissue
pulmonary circulation
circ of blood from pulmonary artery thru the vessels in the lungs and back to the heart via the pulmonary vein providing for the exchange of gases
to expand; period in the cardiac cycle when blood enters the relaxed ventricles from the atria
to contract; period in the cardiac cycle when heart is in contraction and blood is ejected thru the aorta and pulmonary artery
normal blood pressure
low blood pressure
high blood pressure
thickening loss of elasticity and calcification or hardening of arterial walls
build up fatty substances that harden within the walls of arterries
atheromatoous plaque
a swollen area within the lining of an artery caused by the buildup of fat
a stationary blood clot
a clot carried int eh bloodstream that obstructs when it lodges
condition of narrowing a part
compression of a part
plugging; obstruction of a closing off
to hold back blood; decreased blood flow to tissue caused by constriction or occlusion of a blood vessel
perfusion deficit
a lack of flow thru a blood vessel caused by narrowing, occlusion,etc
to stuff; a localized area of necrosis (cond of tissue death) caused bye ischemia resulting from occlusion of a blood vessel
angina pectoris
chest pain cused by a temp loss of oxygenated blood to heart muscle often caused by narrowing of coronary arteries
a widening; bulging of the wall of the heart, aorta, or artery caused by congenital defect or acquire weakness
saccular aneurysm
a saclike bulge on one side
fusiform aneurysm
a spindle shaped bulge
dissecting aneurysm
a split or tear of the vessel wall
to limp; pain in a limb while walking that subsides after rest; caused by inadequate blood supply
heart murmur
an abnormal sound from the heart produced by defects int he chambers or valves
subjective experience of pounding, skipping or racing heart beats
to grow; an abnormal growth of tissue around a valve, generally a result of infection
sinoatrial node (SA node)
the pacemaker; highly specialized neurologic tissue impeded in the wall of the right atrium responsible for initiating electrical conduction of the heart beat causing the atria to contract and firing conduction of impulses to the AV node
atrioventricular node (AV node)
neurologic tissue in the center of the heart that receives and amplifies the conduction of impulses from the SA node to the bundle of His
bundle of His
neurologic fibers extending from AV node to the R and L bundle branches that fire the impuse from the AV node to the Purkinje fibers
Purkinije fibers
fibers in the ventricles that transmit impulses to the R and L ventricles causing them to contract
resting; resting state of a myocardial cell
change of a myocardial cell from a polarized state to a state of contraction
recharging of the myocaridal cell from a contracted state back to a resting state
normal sinus rhythm (NSR)
regular rhythm of the heart cycle stimulated bye the SA nod (avg rate of 60-100 beats per min)
any of several kinds of irregularity or loss of thythm of the heartbeat
slow heart rate
chaotic, irreg contractions of heart
extremly rapid but reg contractions of heart
premature ventricular contraction (PVC)
a ventricular contraction preceding the normal impulse initiated by SA node
fast heart rate
arteriosclerotic heart disease (ASHD)
a degernerative cond of arteries char by thickening of the inner lining, loss of elasticity and susceptibility to rupture; seen most often in elderly and smokers
bacterial endocarditis
bacterial inflam that affects the endocardium of heart valves
cardiac tamponade
compression of heart produced by accumulation of fluid in pericaridal sac as can result from pericarditis or trauma causing rupture of a blood vessel within heart
disease of heart muscle
congenital anomaly of the heart
malfomrmations of the heart present at birth
atrial septal defect (ASD)
an opening in the septum separating the atria
coarctation of the aorta
narrowing of the descending portion of the aorta resulting in a limited flow of blood to the lower part of of the body
patent ductus arteriosus
an abnormal opening btwn the pulmonary artery and the aorta caused by the failure of the fetal ductus arteriosus to close after birth
ventricular septal defect (VSD)
an opening in the septum separating the ventricals
congestive heart failure (CHF)
failure of L vent to pump an adquate amt of blood to meed demands of the body resulting in a "bottleneck" of congestion in lungs tat may extend to veins cause edema in lower portions of body
co pulmonale
enlargement of R vent resulting from chronic disease within the lungs that causes congestion within the pulmonary circ and resistance of blood flow to lungs
right ventrical failure
enlargement of R vent resulting from chronic disease within the lungs that causes congestion within the pulmonary circ and resistance of blood flow to lungs
coronary artery disease (CAD)
a cond affecting arteries of the heart that reduces the flow of blood and delievery of o2 and nutrients to the myocardium; most often caused by atherosclerosis
hypertension (HTN)
persistently high blood pressure
essential (primary) herypertension
high blood pressure attributed to no single cause but risks incl smoking obesity inc salt intake hypercholesterolemia nd herediary factors
secondary hypertension
high blood pressure caused by the effects of another disease
mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
protrusion of one or both cusps of the mitral valve back into the left atrium during ventricular contraction, resulting in incomplete closure and backflow of blood
myocardial infarction
heart attack; death of myocardial tissue owing to loss of blood flow as a reult of an occusion of a coronary artery; usu caused by atherosclerosis
inflam of myocardium most often caused by viral or bacterial infection
inflam of pericardium
inflam of vein
rheumatic heart disease
damage to heart muscle and heart valves by rheumatic fever
inflam of a vein associated with a clot formation
varicose veins
abnormally swollen twisted veins with defective valves; most often seen in legs
deep vein thrombosis
formation of a clot in a deep vein of the body occurring most often in femoral and iliac veins
physical exam method of listening to sounds within the body witha stethoscope
abnormal heart sound that mimics the gait of a horse; related to abnormal ventricular contraction
electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
electrical picture of heart represented by positive and negative deflections of a graph labeled with letters PQRST correstponding to events of cardiac cycle
stress electrocardiogram
and ECG of the heart recorded during induction of controlled physical exercise using a treadmil or bike; useful in detecting conditions
holter ambulatory monitor
portable electrocardiograph worn by patients that monitors electrical activity over 24 hrs; useful in detecting periodic abnormalities
magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
magnetic resonance imaging of the heart and blood vessels for evaluation of pathology
nuclear medicine imaging
radionuclide organ imaging
myocardial radionuclide profusion scan
a scan of the heart made after an TV injection of an isotope that is absorbed by myocardial cells in proportion to blood flow thru out the heart
myocardial radionuclide profusion stress scan
nuclear scan of heart taken before and after the induction of controlled physical exercise or a harmaceutical agent that produces the effect of excercise stress
xray imaging
process of xray imaging of a blood vessel after injection of a contrast medium
record obtained by angiography
conronary angiogram
radiograph of blood vessels of the heart
xray of a particular artery
xray of aorta
xray of a vein
cardia catheterization
intro of a flexible narrow tube or catheter thru a vein of artery into heart to withdraw samples of blood; to measure pressures within the heart chambers or vessels; and to inject contrast media for fluoroscopic radiography and cine film (motion pic) imaging of chambers of heart and coronary arteries. incl interventional procedures such as angioplasty and atherectomy
left heart catheterization
xray of the L vent cavity and coronary arteries
right heart catheterization
measurement of o2 saturation and pressure readings of the right side of the heart
xray visualizing the ventricles
stroke volume (SV)
measurement of the amt of blood ejected from a vent in one contraction
cardiac output (CO)
measurement of the amt of blood ejected from either ventricle of the heart per min
ejction fraction
measurement of volume percentage of L vent contents ejected with each contraction
sonographic imaging
recording sound waves thru heart to eval structure and motion
stress echocardiogram
echocardiogram of heart recorded during physical exercise; useful in detecting cond such as ischemia or infarction
transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE)
echocardiographic image of heart after placement of an ultrasonic transducer at end of an endoscpe inside esophagus
doppler sonography
ultrasound tech used to evaluate blood flow to determine the presence of a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or carotid insufficiency or to determine flow thru the heart chambers valves and so on
coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
grafting of a portion of a blood vessel retrieved from anther part of the body to bypass and occluded coronary artery restoring circ to myocardial tissue
opening; joinign of two blood vessels to allow flow from one to the other
valve replacement
relacement of a diseased heart valve with an artificial one
surgical repair of a heart valve
transmyocardial revascularization
a laser tech used to open iny channels in heart muscles to restore blood flow thereby relieve angina in patients who have advanced coronary artery disease
endovascular surgery
interventional procedures performed at the time of cardiac catheterization in a specialized lab (cath lab) instead of OR
use of a flexible fiberoptic angioscope that is guided thru a specific blood vessel to isually assess a lesion and to select the mode of therapy
an incision into an artery
excision of atheromatous plaque from within an artery utilizing a device housed in a flexile catheter that selectively cuts away or pulverizes tissue buildup
incision into an artery for the removal of an emolus
incision into an artery for the removal of a thrombus
surgicl removal of the lining of an artery to clear a blocage caused by a clot of atherosclerotic plaque build up
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
method of treating the narrowing of a coronary artery by inserting a specialized catheter wtih a balloon attached, then inflating it to dialte and open the narrowed portion of the vessel and restore blood flow to the myocardium
intravascular stent
implantation of a device used to reinforce the wall of a vessel and assure its patency (openness) -- most often used to treat a stenosis or a dissection or to reinforce patency of a vessel after angioplasty
termination of ventricullar fibrillation by delievering an electrical stimulus to heart; most commonly done by applying electrodes of defibrillator externally to chest wall but can be performed internally during open heart surgery or via an implanted device
device that delievers the electrial stimulus in defibrillation
term of tachycardia either by pharmaceutical means of by delievery of electrial energy
implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)
implanted battery operated device with rate senseing leads; monitors cardiac impulses and initiates an electrial stimulus and needed to stop ventricular fibrillation or tachycardia
a device used to treat slow heart rates by electrically stimulating the heart to contract; most often implanted with lead wires and batter circuitry under skin but can be temp placed externally wtih lead wires inserted into heart via vein
angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACE)
a drug that suppresses the conversion of angiotensin in blood by the angiotensin-converting enzyme; used in treatment of hypertension
a drug that dialtes coronary arteries, restoring o2 to the tissues to relieve theh pain of angina pectoris
a drug that counteracts cardiac arrhythmia
a drug that prevents blood clotting
a drug that lowers BP
beta-adrenergic blocking agents
agents that inhibit responses to sympathetic adrenergic nerve activity, causing a slowering of electrical conduction and heart rate and a lowering of the pressure withint the walls of the vessels; sued to treat angina pectoris and hypertension
beta blockers
agents that inhibit responses to sympathetic adrenergic nerve activity, causing a slowering of electrical conduction and heart rate and a lowering of the pressure withint the walls of the vessels; sued to treat angina pectoris and hypertension
calcium channel blockers
agents that inhibit the entry of calcium ions in heart muscles cells causing a slowing of heart rate, lessing the demand for o2 and nutrients and relaxing of the smooth muscle cells of teh lood vessels to cause diation used to prevent or treat angina pectoris, some arrhythmias, and hypertension
a drug that inc the secretion of urine; commonly prescirbed in treating hyper tension
a drug that reduces serum fat and cholesterol
thrombolytic agents
drugs used to dissolve thrombi
a drug that causes a narrowing of the blood vessels dcreasing blood flow
a drug that causes dilation of the blood vessels increasing blood flow

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