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course 14 snco communication


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when planning our communication the first factor we should consider is
analyzing our audience
the person or organization we are communicating on bahalf of such as our supervisor, commander or Air Force
sending audience
the person who will be recieving the communication
recieving audience
if your audience is hostile or skeptical you need to
be more persuasive in your communication
your communication efforts will be more successful if you consider
how your audience feels about your subject
it becomes neccessary to narrow our topic because narrowing your topic will
allow adequate coverage of the material
focus your attention on a specific afea
require less research
provide a better chance for the audience to get your intended mesage

When determining the reason for communication
Ensure your communication does what you intended
help organize your thoughts
focuses your communication
identifies what you want the recieving audience to do with your communication

Experts tell us to improve our organizations effieciency by more than 40% we must incomporate problem solving techiniques in our daily routine
it pursuades
experts tell us, to improve our organizations effieciency by more than 40% we must incorporate problem solving techinques in our daily routines
tells the reader what's init for them
Let me share with you how we successfully used team building techniques to imrove unit morale at Jones AFB
This is not an effective purpose statement. We can tell the purpose is to inform, but there is little or no appeal to the audience
Experts tell us, to improve our organizations efficiency by more than 40% we must incorporate problem solving techniques in our daily routines
tells the reader what's in it for them
discussing events problems or processes in teh sequence of time in which they take place or should take place. The simplest and most commonly used approach in writing
starting at a point in space and proceeding in sequence to another point.
shows how one or more ideas actions or conditions leads to otehr ideas actions or conditions
problem solution
used to identify and describe a problem or issue and then discuss possible solution to the problem or techniques for resolvign a issue
used to describe a sequence of steps necessary to complete a technical prodedure or process
commonly used to present general statements followed by numbered listings of subtopics to support, explain or expand statements
use this style when you need to discuss similiarites and/or differences between topics concepts, or ideas
reasoning /logic
use this pattern when your mission is to present research that will lead you down the path to your point of view
Summary in conclusion structure
acts as a brake light alerting your audience that your presentation is ending. shouldn't contain new information.
close effect remarks
tie your closing remarks back to your opening statement or close the loop
for transition to be effectice
mention the point just discussed relate the point to the objective or purpose of the communication introduce the next main point
factors to consider when planning to communicate
analyz your audience choose your topic determine your purpose gather your support
techniques of organizing a communication
generating and refining ideas
choosing a pattern of organizatiion
developing the introduction, body, and conclusion
using transitions

how do you know when you have paragragh unity
if everything relates to a single or controlling idea. addressing only one idea per paragragh known as the one horse one rider principle
another way to check for paragragh unity
see if your sentences support the main point idea
another way to tell if your paragragh is unified
if all the sentences support the topic sentence.
there are two types of supporting sentences
major and minor
major sentences
define explain or add proof to the topic sentence.
closing sentences should
rephrase the topic sentence suummarize the material in the paragragh, transition to the next paragragh
Coherence allows your readers to see relationships between sencences; the can read throught he paragragh and eventually the entire writing.
show relationships between ideas in your sentences and paragraghs. connecting words such as first, next, also, and therefore.
words that show contrast
but, still however, yet, neverthelsss
1st person
the person writin example
I or We
2nd person is the person written to
3rd person is the person or thing written about
him, her, them, it he she they
verb tense
she took the test and turned it in.

she takes the test and turns it in

passive voice and active voice
the dog was seen by john ( passive)
John saw the dog. (active)
the book was read by me. (passive)
I read the book (active)

subject verb agreement
the car runs on regular gas
(the subject "car" is singular so is the verb runs)
the cars run on regular gas.
(The subject "cars" is plural and so is the verb "run"

sigular and plural verbs
each, either, neither, one, no one, everyone, anyone, someone, anybody, somebody, everybody

plural several, many, few, both

actecedent and pronoun reference
I always carry extra fan belts becuase it is often useful..
the antecedent "fan belts" is plural but the pronoun "it" is singular. there are two ways to fix this either make "fan belts" singular (an extra fan belt) or change "it to "they"
ambiguous pronoun
the boys wore hats to their classes which the prinicipal disaproved of
did the principal disaprove of the hats or classes.
rewrite. the principal disapproved of the hats the boys wore to their classes

clarification support
spell out the acryonym and explain its meaning
proof support
adds credibiility
shows something is true
proves or supports a point

intergrating sources
support material flows smoothly in our writen or spoken presentatiosn
support material logically fits with the paper or speech
figure of speech used to compare two things. its a phrase or part of a sentence that compares something concrete or abstract
uses words like or as
most powerful form of proof support
slanted reasoning
fallacy arises from misue or lack of data. example
owned 3 used cars in your lifetime and have had bad luck with all 3
faulty dilema
example you eithr vote for me and hlep preserve the constitution or vote for my opponent and join the forces trying to destroy it.
offers 2 alternatives one of the writer wants us to accept and the one he know we will eitehr question or never accept.
fautly analogy
compares one situation to another. assumption what is true of a simple or famillar situation is also true of a complex or complicated one
example learning to fly a plane is easy as learning to drive a car
stacking the evidence
distorting or omitting important evidence to get a point across.
loaded question
example when are we going to stop sinking money into this expensive program
name calling
giving undesirable names to things or people you dislike such as a calling an appoinent a radical
glittering generality
giving an admirable name to something we want others to accept.

snob or prestige apeal
everyone who si anyone lives in pine tree acres.
plain folks appeal
simple things in life are the things worth having.
first reading of your draft is to check for
arrangement and flow
second reading check for
paragragh structure and clarity
3rd reading check for
sentences phrases and words
passive voice, wordiness and spelling
effective eye contact lest liseners know you are interersted in them, allows you to recieve nonverbal feedback, it enhances your credibility
benefits of good body movement
catches the eye of the listener and helps hold thier attention, helps relieve nervousness in the speaker can place the audience more at ease.
articulation, pronunciation, overuse of stock expessions ok, like you know
substandard grammer.
rate volume, force, pitch, emphasis
when planning comm whome should the writer speaker consider
both sender and reciever
you would like to speak at the next commanders call to sollicit vol to help with base blood drives, what is the purpose
what is the purpose of your summary
to reinforce key points
Commonly used to present general statements followed by numbered listings of subtopics to support explain or expaind the statments
use this pattern to identify and describe a problem or issue then discuss possible solutions to the problem or techniques for resolving an issue
problem solution
shows how one or more ideas actions or conditions leads to other ideas actions or conditions
where you set up your audience for whats to follow, an attention step, a purpose statment what your going to talk about and why the audience should listen and whats to follow.
for attention step use
a rhetorical question, qootation, jok a strartling statement, a gimmick
conclusion is made up of three components
summary, remotivation, and closure
the senteces following the topic senctece should
support it thier job is to clarify describe prove or explain the topic sentence,
major sencentes
should define explain, or add proof to the topic sentence directly support it.
minor sentence
should define, explain or add proof to the major sentence, it supports the major support sentence
topic snentences usually prompt a question when you read them.
if a topic sentence says oranges are bad for you, you want the sentences after that to explain why oranges are bad for you
paragragh unity alone does not ensure a good paragragh
there must also be coherence
coherence allows your readers to realtionships
between sentences usign pronouns, repeating key words and ideas, connecting words and phrases, and maintaining consistency in verb,s pronouns and voice.
can be very effective transitional devices
transitions words like he she we, it those, and this
use connectives to
show relationships between ideas in your sentences and paragraghs. connecting words like first, next, also, and therefore
words that show addition can be used as
connectives to connect thougs, examples and, then, also, besides, furthermore, likewise, additionally, moreover, first, second, next, both, etc.
transitional words are used to
smooth the flow
can be singular or plural
several, many, few, both
pronoun reference
when the antecedent the word or phrase to which the pronoun refers and pronoun disagree
when the antecedent is singular and pronoun referring to it is plural
ambiguos pronouns
the boys wore hats to their clases which the principle disaproved of.
did the priniciple disaprove of the hats or the classes.
paraghagh has unit when
everything in it sticks to one ide the idea in the topic sentence
clarifiaction support
prevent confusion or misunderstanding the message clarify or explain things for the reader or listener. clarification support to explain unfamiliar or ambiguous terms, aronys, or concepts
integrating sources means
ensuring support material flows smoothly in our written or spoken presentations, support material logically fits within the paper or speech.
figure of speech used to compare two things
like a metaphor less direct uses like or as
arrangement and flow
check your tasking and purpose
check your introduction
compare your introduction and conclusion
check overall page count and length
check for relevance and completeness

paragragh structure and clarity
unity of focus one main idea in the paragragh
does the paragragh have a topic sentence is it the first sentence in the paragragh
supporting ideas, does sentences explain points mentioned or suggested in each main idea.

sentence phrases and words
passive voice, unclear language excessive wordiness, grammatical errors and spelling mistakes
to achieve genuine eye contact
do not look over the tops of their heads, look at the m systematically, or only look at the portion of the audience that seems interestd. Make it evident to each person in a small group that each part of the audience in larger auditoriums that you are interested in them and eager to have them undestand your message
effective body movement can be described as
free and purposeful
stay relaxed time your guesters properly, use complete gustures and use gustures that fit the situation
effective guestures are natural and spontaneous
commoon faults are to misplace the accent, omit sounds, or add unessasary sounds, overcome these sounds by looking in the dictionary.
overuse of stock expressions
ok like, and you know, and vocal puase, (uh, um and ah)
minimize these by knowing your material
vocal fundamentals
rate, volume,force, pitch, and emphasis

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