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Metamorphic and Sedimentary Rocks

Notes on Metamorphic and Sedimentary Rocks for St. Rose seniors


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compaction and cementaion
the 2 main ways materials come together and form sedimentary rock
weather and erosion
provide us with the materials for sedimentary rock
sedimentary rocks
form when 1. sediments become pressed or cemented together or 2. when sediments precipitate out of a solution
when the solution of water and dissolved minerals move through open spaces between sediments and cement the sediments together
waste coal
contains high-sulfur content and can result in acid runoff when rainwater flows through the waste coal piles
come from other rocks that are weathered and eroded
chemical sedimentary rocks
form when minerals are precipitated from a solution or left behind when a solution evaporates
requires NO cementation to hold its particles of clay-sized sediments which are compacted together from overlying (top) layers
slate (example of foliated rocks)
from the sedimentary rock shale (shale is easily separated along foliation layers)
gneiss (example of foliated rocks)
foliated rock that forms granite and other rocks are changed and rearranged into alternating bands
size and shape
detrital rocks are named according to the _______ and _______ of the sediments
fossil-rich limestone
contains remains of once-living ocean animals along with calcite (chemical limestone)
loose material, such as rocks fragments, mineral grains, and bits of plant and animal remains moved by WIND, WATER, ICE, GRAVITY, or dissolved in water
most rocks below earth's surface
natural color of hornblende and serpent in marble
most rocks at earth's surface
sedimentary rocks made from the broken fragments of other rocks that are compacted and cemented together
the movement of weathered material
metamorphic rocks
rocks that have changed due to temperature and pressure
waste coal
a poor quality coal that is a by-product of coal mining
formed from sandsized sediments (grains of minerals quartz and feldspar that can be compacted or cemented together)
process that breaks rocks into smaller pieces
compostion and the way they form
sedimentary rocks are classified by:
non-foliated rocks
texture of rocks where the mineral grains grow, change, and rearrange, but do NOT form bands
"to wear away"
sandstone and shale
examples from smaller particles of dertrital rocks
contains carbons that are typically found in living systems
to mix with water
pressure upon layers of built up small sediments on lower layers causing lower layers to stick together and form solid rock
limestone and rock salt
examples of chemical sedimentary rocks
sometimes referred to as clastic rocks because of their texture (clastic comes from "klatos"= broken)
foliated rocks
texture of rocks resulting from mineral grains flattening and lining up in parellel bands
coquina and coal
2 very useful sedimentary rocks
when calcite in ocean water comes together (comes out of a solution) the crystals grow together usually on the ocean floor
made from shells of mussels, corals, and snails *ONLY CONTAINS CALCITE*
natural color of hemetite in marble
organic sedimentary rocks
rocks formed from remains of living things
igneous rocks
rocks formed by the cooling of molten rock (either magma or lava)
made from dead plants compacted over millions of years -A GOOD ENERGY SUPPLY-
foliated and non-foliated rocks
metamorphic rocks are classified according to their texture:
rock salt
halite (a mineral) left behind when lakes and seas evaporate halite mixes with other minerals to form rock salt
marble (example of non-foliated rocks)
forms from the sedimentary rock limestone (which is composed of calcite)
when both electrical and thermal energy produced by burning waste-coal used by the same plant (to run the plant)
a mixture of minerals, mineraloids, glass or organic matter
1. detrital 2. chemical 3. organic
classifications of sedimentary rocks:
fossil-rich limestone, coquina, and coal
examples of organic sedimentary rocks
quartzite (example of non-foliated rocks)
nonfoiliated rock resulting from heat and pressure on sandstone (which is composed mostly of quartz minerals)
glass, paper, soap, dairy products, and table salt
rock salt is mined for the uses of:
igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic
3 major types of rocks
examples from large sediments of detrital rocks
conglomerate (well rounded) and breccia (sharp angles)

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