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MPCS Ch.4 Science Test

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What happens when mineral grains grow together?
Rock is formed.
When does coal form?
When pieces of dead plants are buried under other sediments in swamps. These plant materials are chemically changed by microorganisms.
Why is marble a popular material for artists to sculpt?
Because it is not as hard as other rocks.
When do sedimentary rocks form?
When sediments are pressed and cemented together, or when minerals form from solutions.
What is similiar to sandstone but is made of smaller, silt-sized particles?
Siltstone
What happens to solid rock in the presence of hot, water-rich fluids?
It can change in mineral composition without having to melt.
What separates dark and light bands in rocks?
The movement of atoms.
What can sedimentary rocks be made of?
About any material found in nature, even the remains of some organisms.
What has formed from andesitic magmas?
Many volcanoes around the rim of the Pacific Ocean.
How is one way you can classify rocks?
By the magma from which form.
What increases with the depth of Earth?
temperature
What can change metamorphic rock?
Heat, pressure, and hot fluids.
What happens when rock is exposed to air, water, or ice?
It breaks down chemically and mechanically.
What does detrital mean?
To wear away.
What rock is watertight?
Slate. It is perfect for paving around pools and patios.
What is the cement that holds the sediments together usually made of?
Quartz or calcite
How can sedimentary rock change?
By heat and pressure to form a metamorphic rock.
When do mineral grains change by dissolving and recrystallizing?
When they are in the presence of fluids.
Name another useful organic sedimentary rock.
Coal
What is a rock?
A mixture of minerals, rock fragments, volcanic glass, or other natural materials.
What is erosin?
The movement of weathered material.
Which is formed by cooling magma?
Igneous rock
How are sedimentary rocks named?
According to the shapes and sizes of the sediments that form them.
Does layering occur in all metamorphic rocks?
No always.
What do you call sediments that have sharp angles?
Breccia
What forms rock salt?
Halite
What balances some heat loss as Earth continues to cool?
Radioactive decay of elements contained in rocks.
What happens as magma cools?
Atoms and compounds in the liquid arrange themselves into new crystals called mineral grains.
What is formed from large sediments?
Conglomerate and breccia.
What is shale?
A detrital sedimentary rock that is made mainly of clay-sized particles.
What are granite igneous rocks?
Light-colored rocks of lower density than basaltic rocks.
What happens to weathered rocks?
They are eroded and carried away by wind, water, or ice.
What are sediments?
Loose materials such as rock fragments, mineral grains, and bits of shell that have been moved by wind, water, ice, or gravity.
What animals make their shells from calcium carbonate?
Mussels, clams, corals, and snails.
What happens when volcanoes erupt?
They eject a flow of molten rock material called magma. (It flows when it's hot and becomes solid when it cools.)
Give 2 examples of folitated rocks.
Slate and gneiss
The weathing and erosin of igneous rocks produces material that can become what type of rock?
Sedimentary Rock
What else is slate good for because it is naturally flat and splits easily?
Roofing and tiling
What is a rock formed mostly of quartz grains?
Sandstone
Which detrital rock forms from the smallest sediments?
Shale. (From clay sediments.)
What is the temperature of magma?
It can range from 650 to 1,200 degrees celcius, depending on their chemical compositions and pressures exerted on them.
What is coquina?
A rock that is made completely of shell fragments that you can see.
What happens when fluids are hot?
The water with dissolved elements and compounds can react chemically with a rock and change its composition.
When does limestone form?
When calcium carbonate comes out of solution as calcite and its many crystals grow together.
What is CaCO3?
Calcium carbonate
What type of rock is marble?
Nonfoliated metamorphic rock that forms from limestone.
What happens when water that is rich in dissolved salt evaporates?
It often deposits the mineral halite.
What happens when mineral grains grow together?
Rock is formed.
What is one of the most common organic sedimentary rocks?
Fossil-rich limestone
Where does basaltic lava flow?
From volcanoes in Hawaii, such as Kilauea.
What is the sparkle in rocks?
Individual crystals of minerals.
What is organic sedimentary rock?
Rock made from the remains of once-living things.
What is compaction?
When deposited sediments layer upon layer and build up. They can stick together and form solid rock.
What does the roundness of sediment particles depend on?
How far they have been moved by wind or water.
What do you call sediments that are rounded?
Conglomerate
Where is limestone usually depostited?
On the bottom of lakes or shallow seas.
What is a mineral found in multiple rock types?
Garnet
What is another organic sedimentary rock that is made of microscopic shells?
Chalk
How do basaltic rocks form?
From magma that is rich in iron and magnesium and poor in silica.
What happens when shelled animals die?
Their shells accumulate on the ocean floor, they are cemented together, and fossil-rich limestone forms.
What happens when lava flows on the surface?
It is exposed to air and water, and cools quickly.
What are the most common rocks on Earth?
Igneous rocks because most of them exist below the surface.
What happens as magma cools?
Atoms and compounds in the liquid arrange themselves into new crystals called mineral grains.
How does slate form?
From the sedimentary rock shale.
What is weathering?
The process that breaks rocks into smaller pieces.
Igneous rock is formed by what?
Cooling of hot magma.
What gives basalt its dark color?
The presence of iron and magnesium.
What is foliated texture?
When mineral grains line up in parallel layers.
What happens when hot magma cools and hardens?
It forms igneous rock.
What is nonfoliatede texture?
When mineral grains grow and rearrange, but don't form layers.
What is the process in which small sediments stick together and form solid rocks?
Compactation
What is concrete made of?
Gravel and sand grains that have been cemented together.
What type of rocks can form from any other type of rock?
Metamorphic
Sedimentary rocks often form as what?
Layers. (Older layers are on the bottom.)
What are intrusive igneous rocks?
Rocks that form from magma below the Earth's surface.
How can large sediments stick together?
They have to be cemented. Pressure alone cannot make them stick together.
Give examples of volcanic glass.
Pumice, obsidian, and scoria. (Thetse rocks formed quickly that few or no mineral grains formed and the atoms in these rocks are NOT arranged in orderly patterns, and FEW crystals are present.
When does cementation occur?
When minerals such as quartz, calcite, and hematite are depostited between the pieces of sediment. (They act as a natural cement.)
What balances some heat loss as Earth continues to cool?
Radioactive decay of elements contained in rocks.
Describe granite magma.
It is thick and stiff and contains lots of silica but lesser amounts of iron and magnesium.
What are metamorphic rocks?
Rocks that have changed because of changes in temperature and pressure OR the presence of hot watery fluids.
Why is granite a rock?
Because it is a mixture of feldspar, mica, quartz, and other minerals.
What can metamorphic rock form from?
Igneous, sedimentary, or other metamorphic rocks.
When do chemical sedimentary rocks form?
When dissolved minerals come out of solution. (And they are NOT made from pieces of preexisting rocks.)
What can be the thickness of rock salt?
A few meters to more than 400 meters.
What are the rock-forming minerals?
Quartz, feldspar, mica, or calcite.
What is a volcanic rock that contains trapped gas during its formation?
Pumice
Where do sediments come from?
Already existing rocks that are weathered and eroded.
Where does magma come from?
Deep below the Earth's surface. (Even near 150 km.)
What is sandstone formed from?
Smaller particles than conglomerates and breccia.
What is the temperature of magma?
It can range from 650 to 1,200 degrees celcius, depending on their chemical compositions and pressures exerted on them.
What are hot fluids mainly comprised of?
Water and carbon dioxide.
Where does magma come from?
Deep below the Earth's surface. (Even near 150 km.)
What is carried in solution in ocean water?
Calcium carbonate
What are detrital rocks made from?
Broken fragments of other rocks.
When do minerals collect?
When seas or lakes evaporate.
How are igneous rocks broken into fragments?
By weathering and erosin.
What happens when hot magma cools and hardens?
It forms igneous rock.
What is an important resource that is mined by companies?
Salt
How are rocks classified?
By their compostition and by the manner in which they are formed.
Name the metamorphic rock texture in which mineral grains line up in parallel layers.
Foliated, like slate.
What is the rock cycle?
Shows how rocks slowly change through time.
What are the 3 types of rocks shown in the rock cycle?
Igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary.
What are intrusive igneous rocks?
Rocks that form from magma below the Earth's surface.
How can metamorphic rock be classified?
According to its composition and texture.
What does the type of magma that cools to form an igneous rock determine?
Important chemical and physical properties of that rock, such as mineral composition, density, color, and melting temperature.
Like chemical limestone, what else is made of the mineral calcite?
Fossil-rich limestone
What are basaltic rocks?
Igneous rocks that are dense, dark-colored rocks.
Can rocks change or transform into any rock?
YES!
What percent of rocks exposed at the Earth's surface are sedimentary rocks?
75%
Which state has been said to have been covered by ocean water several times during history?
Kansas
What is magma called when it flows from volcanoes?
Lava
What is magma less dense than?
Surrounding solid rock because it is forced upward toward the surface.
What happens in pumice and scoria when they cool?
Gases become trapped in the gooey molten material and then holes are formed.
What is a mineral found in multiple rock types?
Garnet
With heat and pressure, what will rock shale change into?
Slate, and then if heat and pressure continue, it can continue to change.
What happens when volcanoes erupt?
They eject a flow of molten rock material called magma. (It flows when it's hot and becomes solid when it cools.)
How do volcanoes that erupt andesitic magma erupt?
Violently
What is magma called when it flows from volcanoes?
Lava
What is the rock called quartzite a result of?
When sandstone is heated under a lot of pressure, the grains of quartz grow in size and become interlocking, like the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle.
How are sedimentary rocks usually classified?
As detrital, chemical, or organic.
What percent of calcite must limestone be?
50
Is concrete considered to be a rock?
NO!
What type of textures do detrital rocks have?
Granular, like SUGAR.
What is one example of a nonfoliated metamorphic rock?
Marble.
What is formed by cooling magma?
Igneous Rock
What is an important source of energy?
Coal
How does foliation in gneiss show up as?
Alternating light and dark bands
What can happen to a rock when an amount of pressure and temperature is applied?
It can change into several different metamorphic rocks.

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