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Science

Terms

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igneous rock
rock that forms when magma cools and solidifies
mafic
describes magma or igneous rock that is rich in magnesium and iron and that is generally dark in color
foliated
the metamorphic rock texture in which grains are arranged in planes of bands
chemical sedimentary rock
sedimentary rock that forms when minerals precipitate from a solution or settle from a suspension
contact metamorphism
a change in the texture, structure, or chemical compositon of a rock due to contact with magma
regional metamorphism
a change in the texture, structure, or chemical compositon of a rock due to changes in tempeture and pressure over large area, generally as a result of tectonic forces
felsic
describes magma or igneous rock that is rich in feldspars and silicate and that is generally light in color
intrusive igneous rock
rock that formed from the cooling and solidification of lava at Earths surface
compaction
the process in which the volume and porosity of a sediment is decreased by the weight of of overlaying sediments as a result of burial beneath other sediments
extrusive igneous rock
rock that forms from the cooling and solidification of lava Earth's surface
cementation
the process in which minerals precipitate into pore spaces between sediments grains and bind sediments together to form rock
non foliated
the metomorphic rock texture in which mineral grains are not arranged in planes or bands
metamorphism
the process in which one type of rock changes into metamorphic rock because of chemical processes or changes in tempeture and pressure
organic sedimentary rock
sedimentary rock that forms the remains of plants or animals
Bowen's reaction series
the simplified pattern that illustrates the order in which minerals crystallize from cooling magma according to their chemical composition and melting point
clastic sedimentary rock
sedimentary rock that forms when fragments of preexisting rocks are compacted or cemented together
rock cycle
the series of the process in which rock forms

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