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rock and soil


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Dust Bowl
an area of the Great Plains named because wind erosion caused soil loss during the 1930s
chemical weathering
breaks down rock through chemical changes, such as water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, living organisms, and acid rain
conservation plowing
soil conservation method in which the dead stalks from the previous year's crop are left in the ground to hold the soil in place
the solid layer of rock beneath the soil
loose, weathered material on Earth's surface in which plants can grow
soil that is made up of about equal parts of clay, sand, and silt
the MOVEMENT of rock particle by wind, water, ice, or gravity
dark-colored substance that forms as plant and animal remains decay
the grinding away of rock by rock particles carried by water, ice, wind, or gravity
mechanical weathering
breaks rock into pieces by freezing and thawing, heating and cooling, growth of plants, actions of animals, and abrasion
the organisms that break the remains of dead organisms into smaller pieces and digest them with chemicals
the process that BREAKS DOWN rocks and other substances at Earth's surface
contour plowing
the practice of plowing fields along the curves of a slope to slow runoff of extra rainfall and prevent soil from washing away
soil horizon
a layer of soil that differs in color and texture from the layers above and below it
the thick mass of tough roots at the surface of the soil
ice wedging
water fills cracks in rocks, then freezes and and the ice breaks the rock
a crumbly, dark-brown soil that is a mixture of humus, clay, and other minerals
soil conservation
the management of soil to prevent its destruction
usually consists of clay and other particles washed down from the A horizon, but little humus
a material that is full of tiny connected air spaces that allow water to seep through it
the loose layer of dead plant leaves and stems on the surface of the soil

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