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Science

Terms

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Intrusive Igneous rock
rock formed from the cooling and solidification of magma beneath Earth's surface.
Non-Foliated
The metamorphic rock texture in which mineral grains are not arranged in plains or bands.
Chemical sedimentary rock
Sedimentary rock that forms when minerals precipitate from a solution or settle from a suspension.
Organic sedimentary rock
Sedimentary rock that forms from the remains of plants and animals.
Felsic
describes magma or igneous rock that is rich in feldspars and silica and that is generally light in color.
Igneous rock
rock that forms when magma cools and solidifies.
Clastic sedimentary rock
Sedimentary rock that forms when fragments of preexisting rocks are compacted or cemented together.
Bowen's reaction series
The simplified pattern that illustrates the order in which minerals crystallize from cooling magma according to their chemical composition and melting point.
Mafic
Describes magma or igneous rock that is rich is magnesium and iron that is generally dark in color.
Extrusive Igneous rock
Rock that forms from the cooling and solidification of lava at Earth's surface
Compaction
The process in which the volume and porosity of a sediment is decreased by the weight of overlaying sediments as a result of burial beneath other sediments.
Regional metamorphism
A change in texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to changes in temp. and pressure over a large area, generaly as a result of tectonic forces.
Contact metamorphism
A change in texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to contact with magma.
Metamorphism
The process in which one type of rock changes into metamorphic rock because of chemical processes or changes in temperature and pressure.
Cementation
The process in which minerals precipitate into pore spaces between sediment grains and bind sediments together to form rock.
Foliation
The metamorphic rock texture in which mineral grains are arranged in plains or bands.
Rock Cycle
The series of processes in which rock forms, changes from one type to another, is destroyed, and forms again by geological processes.

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