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Science Final


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the process of obtaining information by using the senses;the information obtained by using the senses
Open System
a system in which both energy,and matter are exchanged with the surroundings
Bowen's Reaction Series
A simplified pattern that explains the order in which minerals form as magma solidifies
rock formed from the cooling and solidification of magma beneath Earth's surface
Orgain Sedimentary Rock
sedimentary rock that forms from the remains of plants or animals
Crystal Shape
Certain mineral will always have the same shape depends on: Pressure and Temperature
What does a rock have to go through to become an Igneous rock?
Melting and Cooling
Each degree of latitude consists of 60 equal parts called...
the scientific study of the universe
2 ways sedimentary rocks form
Cementation and compaction
List 2 examples of map directions and symbols
Directions- Compass rose and Cardinal Symbols- Legend and Scale
Name the 3 compositinal zones
Crust, mantle, and core
the angular distance east or west from the prime meridian, expressed in degrees
an idea or explanation that is based on observations and that can be tested
Name the 6 kinds of Silicate arrangements
Isolated, Ring, Single-Chian, Double- Chain, Sheet, and Framework
Name 3 different cultures that helped make science what it is today
Greeks- Complied a catalog of rocks and minerals Mayans- tracked the movements of the sun, the moon,and the planets at observations China- began keeping records of earthquakes
Name some of the special properties
Flourescence, Phosphorescence, Asterism, and Double Refraction
Name the 3 types of rocks and how they are formed
Igneou- Forms when magma cools and hardens Sedimentary- Forms when sediment deposites are compressed or cemented together and hardened Metamorphic- when existing rock is altered
Name the 4 cycles and the overall idea of them
Nitrogen, Carbon, Phosporus, and Water - Whatever you start with will eventually cycle around and come back again
anything that has mass and takes up space
Fractional Crystallization
the crystallization and removal of different minerals from the cooling magma
Each minute is divided into 60 equal parts called...
What are the 3 things that make up an atom
Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons
the tendency for currents of air or water to seperate sediments according to size
Atomic Number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Name the sources of Magnetic field
Iron and nickle
What are the 2 kinds of minerals?
Silicate and nonsilicate
Clasic Sedimentary Rock
sedimentary rock that forms when fragments of preexisting rocks are compacted or cemented together
Physical Stability
natural zone of weakness- depends on where and how it is formed
the metamorphic rock texture in which mineral grains are arranged in planes or bands
any semicircle that runs north or south around Earth from the geographic south pole; line of longitude
the exactness of the measurment
Food Web
a diagram that shows the feeding relationships among organisms in an ecosystem
how close a measurment is to the true value of the thing being measured
Ionic Bond
the attractive force between oppositely charged ions that result from the transfer of electrons from one atom to another
scientists who makes maps
Independent Variable
in an experiment, the factor that is deliberately manipulated
mixtures in which 2 or more substances mix thouroghly
Contour line
a line that connects points equal elevations in a given area
Prime meridian
0 degrees; runs throgh Greenwich,England
a substance thta cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by chemical means; all atoms of an element have the same atomic number
the areas on Earth's surface just above where the poles of the imaginary magnet; where the compass points
explanation that is consistant with all existing test and observations
Geologic map
designed to show the distribution of geologic features
the scientific study of the orgin, history, and structure of Earth and the process that shapes Earth
the way in which a mineral reflects light
the tendency of a mineral to split along specific planes of weakness to form smooth, flat surface
Name the 3 types of scales
Graphic, fractional, and verbal
2 types of metamorphisism
Contact- change due to contact with magma and Regional- changes in tmperature and pressure
What are 3 factors of a balanced ecosystem
Producer, Consumer, and decomposer
a combination of 2 or more substances that are not chemically combined
Name the 7 Physical properties
Streak, luster, cleavage, fracture, density, hardness, and crystal shape
Name and describe the 4 spheres of the Earth
atmosphere- a mixture of gases that surrounds a planet or moon, hydrosphere- the portion of the Earth that is water, Geosphere- mostly solid/from the center core to the crust, biosphere- the part of the Earth where life exists
Index contour
every 5th contour line bolder than the four lines on each side of it
Soil map
used to classify, map, and describe soils
a particle such as atom or molecule, that carries a charge
a natural, usually inorganic solid that has a characteristic chemical composition, an orderly structur, and a characteristic set of physical properties
the height of an object above sea level
Name and describe the 4 branchs of Science
Geology- study of the orgin, history, and structure of the Earth, Astronomy- the study of the universe, Oceanography- the study of the ocean and life in it, and Meteorology- the study of Earth's atmosphere
mixtures in which 2 or more substances are not uniformly distributed
our true North and South Poles
The color of a mineral in powdered form
Atomic Mass
the sum of neutrons in an atom
rock that forms form the cooling and solidification of lava at Earth's surface
Food Chain
the sequence in which organisms consume other organisms
Physical Properties
characteristics that can be observed without charging the comporition of the substance
Chemical Properties
characteristics that describe how a substance reacts with other substances to produce different substances
What are the 4 questions of Criteria?
Is it inorganic, Does it occur naturally, Is it a crystalline solid, and Does it have a consistent chemical composition
the size and shape of the lands surface features of a region, including its relief
a line on a map that represents a constant or equal v alue of a given quantity
the metamorphic rock texture in which mineral grains are NOT arranged in planes or bands
An objects weight depends on its...
mass and its distance from Earth's center
What does a rock have to go through to become a Metamorphic rock?
Chaning temperature and pressure
the smallest unit of matter that can exist by itself and retain all of a substance's chemical properties
Covalent Bond
a bond that is formed by the attraction between atoms that share electrons
Peer Review
the process in which experts in a given field examine the results and conclusions of a scientist's study before that study is accepted for publication
an atom that has the same number of protons as the other atoms of the same element do but that has a different number of neutrons
What are the 2 main energy sources?
Exerternal- sun Internal- core
Partial Melting
the process by which different minerals in rock melt at different temperatures
homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances that are unifomly dispersed throughout the mixture
Closed System
a system in which energy, but not matter are exchanged with the surronding
the difference between the highest and lowest elevations in a given area
Chemical Stability
a measure of the tendency of a chemical compound to maintain its original chemical compositon rather then break down to form a different chemical
the scientific study of Earth's atmosphere, especially in relation to weather and climate
the ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of the substance
Name the 5 structural zones
Lithosphere, asthenosphere, mesophere, outer core, and inner core
Name 2 ways that a cartographer gets their information
Field Survey and Remote Sensing
Resistance to break
In the rock cycle what process does a rock have to go through to become a Sedimentary rock?
Erosion, deposition, and cementation
the scientific study of the ocean and the life in it
the manner in which a mineral breaks along either curved or irregular surfaces
the smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical properties of that element
Dependent Variable
in an experiment, the factor that changes as a result of manipulation of one or more other factors (independent variable)
the angular distance north or south from the equator; expressed in degress
Name the 2 compositions of Igneous Rock
Felsic and Mafic
What is the size and shape of the Earth?
From pole to pole the circumference is 40,007km and its equatorial circumference is 40,074km the shape is oblate spheroid
Valence electrons
an atom's chemical properties are largely determined by the number of the outer most electrons in an atom's electron cloud
Chemical Sedimentary Rock
sedimentary rock that forms when menerals precipitate from a solution or settle from a suspention

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