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History 122 Ch26


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ch 26 What was the Atlantic Charter released by Roosevelt and Winston Churchill?
Roosevelt and Churchill met secretly to discuss goals and military strategy. Their joint press release became known as the Atlantic Charter, and it provided the ideological foundation of the Western cause and of the peace to follow. The Charter called for economic collaboratoin and guarantees of political stability after the war ended to ensure that all men in all the lands may live out their lives in freedom from fear and want. The charter supported free trade, national self-determination, and the principle of collective security.
ch 26 What was the Manhattan Project?
the development of a new weapon - the atomic bomb.
ch 26 In 1934, what senator from North Dakota began a congressional investigation into the profits of munitions makers during WWI?
Gerald P. Nye. He then widened the investigation to determine the influence of economic interests on America's decision to declare war.
ch 26 WWI had a tremendous long-term impact on Anericans' domestic life, especially in the realms of ...
the economy, demographic changes, and civil rights.
ch 26 Describe the beginnings of WWII.
Within six months of the Munich Conference, where Hitler agreed to not seek more territory, his forces overran Czechoslovakia and were threatening to march into Poland. Britain & France realized their policy of appeasement had been disarous and prepared to take a stand. In August 1939 Hitler signed the Nonaggression Pact with the Soviet Union, which assured Germany it would not have to wage war on two fronts at once. On 9/1/39, German troops attacked Poland; two days later Britain and France declared war on Germany. WWII had begun.
ch 26 What was the larges black union, and who was in charge of it?
The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Portors. A. Philip Randolp was the head.
ch 26 Leadership of federal agencies changed as the Roosevelt administration turned to business executives to replacee the refomers who had staffed New Deal relief agencies in the 1930s. The executives became know as "_____________-__-__________ _____" becausee they volunteered for government service while remaining on the corporate payroll.
"dollar-a-year men"
ch 26 ________ __ _________ led more than 1/2 million United Mine Workers out on strike, demanding an increase in wages over that recommended by the NWLB.
John L. Lewis. Though Lewis won concessions, he alienated Congress, and because he had defied the government, he became one of the most disliked public figures of the 1940s.
ch 26 In a series of cases dealing with curfews and other discriminatory treatment of the Japanese related to the relocation process, the Supreme Court legitimated internment, while nnot expressly ruling on its constitutionality. In 1944 what did the Supreme Court do?
It held in Ex Parte Endo that US citizens who could be proved to be loyal could not be detained. It was not until 1988 that Congress decided to issue a public apology and to give $20,000 in cash to each of the 80,000 surviving internees.
ch 26 In October 1944 the reconquest of the Philippines began with a victory in the Battle of Leyte Gulf, a massive naval encounter in which the __________ lost practically their entire fleet. The US suffered only minimal losses.
ch 26 Coordinating changeover from civilian to war production, raising an army, and assembling the necessary workforce taxed government agencies to the limit. Mobilization on such a scale demanded close cooperation between ________ ____________ and political leaders in Washington solidifying a parrnership that had been growing since WWI.
business executives
ch 26 why were many men rejected when draft boards were registering men for war?
Many were rejected because of defective teeth or poor vision.
ch 26 Which federal agency subjected almost everything Americans ate, wore, or used during WWII to rationing or regulation?
The Office of Price Administration
ch 26 In 1933 _____________ withdrew from the League of Nations.
Germany. And 2 years later Hitler announced that he planned to rearm the nation in violation of the Versailles Treaty. No one stopped him.
ch 26 What 2 Japanese cities did the US dropp atomic bombs in 1945?
Hiroshima and Nagasaki. 100,000 died at Hiroshima and 60,000 died at Nasaki; tens of thousands more died of radiation poisoning.
ch 26 The Allied coalition was composed mainly of Great Britain, the US, and the Soviet Union. Other nations such as _________ & _________ played lessor roles.
China & France.
ch 26 In August 1941 the Atlantic Charter was drafted by President Franklin Roosevelt & Prime Minister Winston Churchill of Britain. What was its purpose?
It formed the basis of the Allies' vision of the postwar international order
ch 26 The military continued to segregate African Americans and assigned them the most menial duties. In contrast, _________ __________ were never officially segregated.
Mexican Americans. Unlike blacks, they were welcomed into combat units.
ch 26 What did Senator Gerald P. Nye's committee conclude when they investigated the profits of munitions makers during WWI?
The committee concluded that war profiteers, whom it called "merchants of death," had maneuvered the nation into WWI for financial gain.
ch 26 What was the purpose of the War Powers Act?
It gave Roosevelt unprecedented authority over all aspects of the condut of the war.
ch 26 Who did Roosevelt choose as his running mate in the 1940 presidential election?
Henry A. Wallace, the liberal secretary of agriculture.
ch 26 What was the result of the Munich Conference in September 1938?
Britain and Spain agreed to let Germany annex the Sudetenland - the German-speaking border areas of Czechoslovakia - in return for Hitler's pledge to seek no more territory.
ch 26 What was Executive Order 8802?
Issued by Roosevelt, it declared there shall be no discrimination in the employment of workers in defense industries or government because of race, creed, color, or national origin.
ch 26 Francisco Franco was strongly supported by the Facist regimes in Germany and Italy as he led a rebellion against the democratically elected Republican government. Who else officially backed him?
The Sovient Union and Mexico, the Loyalists, and relied heavily on individual volunteers from other countries including the American Lincoln Brigade. The governments of the US, Great Britain, and France remained neutral - a policy that virtually ensured a Facist victory.
Ch 26 What countries were determined to expand their borders in 1936?
Germany, Italy, and Japan all determined to expand their borders and their influence and challenged American neutrality repeatedly.
ch 26 What amendment did Congress repeal in 1934?
the Platt Amendment - which was a relic of the Spanish-American War which asserted the US right to intervene in Cuba's affairs.
ch 26 How did Roosevelt convince Congress to pass the Lend-Lease Act?
German submarines were sinking British ships faster than they could be replaced, and Britain was no longer able to afford to pay cash for arms. The legislation authorized the president to lease, lend or otherwise dispose of arms and other equipment to any country whose defense was considered vital to the security of the US.
ch 26 In what agencies did women serve in the military?
WAACS (Womens' Auxilliary Army Corps) and Naval WAVES (Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service. WASPS (Women's Airforce Service Pilots) ferried planes and supplies in noncombat areas. Most of their jobs were in clerical work, communications, and health care.
ch 26 Cracks soon appeared in the relocation policy (Executive Order 9066). How did they eventually let some of the Japanese go?
A labor shortage in farming led the government to furlough seasonal agricultural workers from internment camps. Young people who had been in college when they were interned, were allowed to return to school if the would transfer out of the West Coast. Another route out of internment camps was enlistment in the armed services.
ch 26 In January 1942 Roosevelt set up the National War Labor Board (NWLB), composed of representatives of labor, management, and the public. What were their duties?
The established wages, hours, and working conditions and had the authority to order government seizure of plants that did not comply. 40 plants were seized during the war.
ch 26 Who did the Republicans nominate for President in the 1940 election?
Former Democrat Wendell Willkie of Indiana, who supported many New Deal policies.
Ch 26 Who were the Facist dictators, and what countries did they represent?
Adolf Hitler - Nazi Germany; Benito Mussoli - Italy; and Francisco Franco - Spain.
ch 26 Which country presented the gravest threat to the world order in the 1930s and why?
Germany - Huge WWI reparation payments, economic depression, fear of communism, labor unrest, and rising unemployment fueled the rise of Adolf Hitler and his National Socialist (Nazi) Party.
ch 26 Japan occupied Mancuria, the norternmost province of China. Japan was intent on dominating the Pacific basin, and in 1937 Japan launched a full-scale invasion of China. What did the League of Nations do about this?
The League of Nations condemned Japan's action but was helpless to stop the aggression. Japan simply served the required 1 year notice of withdrawal from the League.
ch 26 What nations comprised the Security Counsel of the United Nations? (The five major Allied powers)
The US, Britain, France, China, and the Soviet Union - plus 6 other nations would be elected on a rotatinge basis. It was decided that the permanent members of the Security Council should have no veto power over decisions of the General Assembly, in which all nations would be repesented.
ch 26 The Revenue Act of 1942 continued the income-tax reform that had begun during WWI by taxing not just wealty individuals and corporations but _______ _________ as well.
average citizens
ch 26 What was an accomplishment of the War Refugee Board that was established in 1944?
They helped to save about 200,000 Jews who were placed in refugee camps in countries such as Morocco and Switzerland
ch 26 What was a major inconvenience for many Americans during WWII?
The limitations placed on their consumption.
ch 26 How did Roosevelt circumvent the nation's neutrality law by executive order?
By trading 50 WWI destroyers to Great Britain in exchange for the right to build military bases on British possessions in the Atlantic.
ch 26 The Japanese sunk an American gunboat, the Panay, in the Yangtze River. How was this crisis smoothed over?
The US accepted Japan's apology and more than $2 million in damages.
ch 26 Which organization challenged long-standing patterns of discrimination and exclusion?
The League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC). They protested segregation in schools and pulic facilities.
ch 26 The Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC) was committed to...
Minority employment rights.
ch 26 Why did American's view WWII as the "good war"?
-They united in their determination to fight German & Japanese totalitarianism in defense of their way of life. -Ended the devastating Great Depression bringing full employment & prosperity.
ch 26 How did the War Production Board encourage business to convert to war production?
The board granted generous tax write-offs for plant construction and approved contracts with cost-plus provisions that guaranteed a profit and promised that businesses could keep the new factories after the war.
ch 26 What were some of Hitler's goals, as chancellor of Germany?
Hitler aimed at nothing short of world domination. He sought to overturn the territorial settlements of the Versailles treaty, to "restore" all the Germans of central & eastern Europe to a single greater German fatherland, and to annex large areas of eastern Europe.
ch 26 When did the Japanese attack Pearl Harbor?
On December 7, 1941, the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor in Hawaii. More than 2,400 Americans were killed, battleships, cruisers, destroyers and nearly 200 planes were annihilated or heavily damaged.
ch 26 In July 1941 Japan became more expansionist by signing the Tri-Partite Pact with Germany & Italy in 1940. When Japanese troops occupied the northern part of French Indochina and declared a Greater East Asia Co-Properity Sphere, how did the US respond?
The US retaliated by restricting trade with Japan and placing an embargo on aviation-grade gasoline and scrap metal.
ch 26 Isolationists, including aviator Charles Lindbergh, formed the ___________ ________ Committee. What was its objective?
to keep the US out of the war. They attracted the support of the Chicago Tribune, the Hearst newspapers, and other conservative publications.
ch 26 What did the Office of War Information strive to do?
Disseminate information and promote patriotism.
ch 26 This wartime agency awarded defense contracts, evaluated military and civilian requests for scarce resources, and oversaw the conversion of industry to military production. Which agency is it?
The War Production Board.
ch 26 What were some of the downsides of the "good war"?
It brought social disruption, widespread anxiety about women's presence in the workforce & a rise in juvenile deliquency.
ch 26 Which popular New Deal programs did Roosevelt agree to drop?
The Civilian Conservation Corps and the National Youth Adminstration, which were less necessary once war mobilization brought full employment.
ch 26 _______ _______ helped to found the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), a group that became known nationwide for its use of direct action like demonstrations and sit-ins.
James Farmer
ch 26 What did the Smith-Connally Labor Act of 1943 require?
It required a 30-day cooling-off period before a strike and prohibited entirely strikes in defense industries.
ch 26 In 1933 Hitler established the 1st concentration camp at _____________ and opened a campaign of persecution against Jews, which expanded to a campaign of extermination when the war began.
ch 26 What were some of Roosevelt's diplomatic initiatives?
The formal recognition of the Soviet Union in November 1933; and the development of the Good Neighbor Policy, under which the US voluntarily renounced the use of military force and armed intervention in the Western Hemisphere. This policy recognized that the friendship of Latin American countries was essential to the security of the US.
ch 26 What is another name for the Servicemen's Readjustment Act (1944)
the GI Bill of Rights. It provided education, job training, medical care, pensions, and mortgage loans for men and women who had served in the armed forces during the war.
ch 26 What could the Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC) NOT do?
They could not require compliance with its orders and its commitment to minority employment rights did not affect segregation in the armed forces.
ch 26 In 1942 Roosevelt issued Executive order 9066. What was it?
It gave the War Department the authority it needed for its plan to evacuate Japanese Americans from the West Coast and intern them in relocation camps for the rest of the war.
ch 26 What was the military-industrial complex?
the close linkage between the federal government and the nation's defense industries.
ch 26 what factors comined to inhibit US action in helping to free Jews in refugee camps?
Anti-Semitism, fears of economic competition from a flood of refugees into a country just recovering from the depression, the failure of the media to grasp the magnitude of the story and to publicize it accordingly, and the failure of religious and political leaders to speak out
ch 26 Why did Roosevelt drop Henry Wallace as his running mate for his fourth term of office?
Henry Wallace was too extreme for mant party leaders. He was outspoken in his support for labor, civil rights, and domestic reform.

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