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The Atmosphere


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the direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that it is touching
aneroid barometer
this had an aurtight metal chanber, which is sensitive to changes in the air. when air pressure increases, the thin walls of the chamber are pushed in, and when the pressure drops, the walls bulge out. the chambor is connected to a dial by a series of springs and levers. as the shape of the chamber changes, the needle on the dial moves.
the horizontal movement of air from an area of high pressure to an area of lower pressure
greenhouse effect
a natural process in which gases in the air hold heat
the outermost layer in the atmosphere. it extends from 80 kilometers above earth's surface into space. there are two layers in this section of the atmosphere.
a form of oxygen that has three oxygen atoms in each molecule instead of two. protects us from dangerous ultraviolet radiation from the sun
this is the lower part of the thermosphere, or the first layer. it begins at about 80 kilometers and ends at about 400 kilometers above earths surface.
coriolis effect
the way earth's rotation makes winds curve
thermal energy
the total energy of morion in the particles of a substance
acid rain
rain is naturally slightly acidic, but this contains more acid than normal. how does it form? the burning of coal that contains a lot of sulfur produces sulful ozides, substances composed of oxygen and sulfur. it forms when nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides combine with water in the air to form nitric acid and sulfuric acid.
a thin glass tube with a bulb on one end that contains a liquid, usually colored alcohol
photochemical smog
the brown haze that develops in sunny cities. it is formed by the action of sunlight on pollutants such as hydrocarbons and nurtogen oxides. these chemicals react to form a brownish muzture of ozone and other pollutants.
the envelope of gases that surrounds the planet
the direct transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves, so the electromagnetic waves given off by the sun are called solar radiation
this is the outer portion of the thermosohere, extending from about 400 kilometers outward for thousands of kilometers.
sea breeze
a local wind that blows from an ocean or lake
jet streams
bands of high-speen winds about 10 kilometers above earth's surface
it extends from the top of the troposphere to about 50 kilometers above earth's surface. this is the second layer of the atmosphere, and contains the ozone layer, which protects living things from dangerous ultraviolet radiation from the sun. the ozone layer also absorbs heat.
water vapor
water in the form of a gas. its invisible and is not the same thing as steam.
wind vane
an instrument used to measure wind direction
units of air pressure
inches and millibars
an instrument used to measure wind speed
the condition of earth's atmosphere ar a particular time and place
mercury barometer
consists of a glass tube open at the borrom end and partially filled with mercury with mercury on a dish. the air pressure pushing down on the suface is equal to the amount of mercury in the tube.
infrared radiation
this has wavelegnths that are longer than red light, and are not visible but can be felt as heat
wind-chill factor
the increased cooling a wind can cause
the second most abundunt gas in the atmosphere that makes up 21% of the gases in dry air. fuels use this gas to burn
global winds
winds that blow steadily from specific directions over long distances, created by the unequal heating of earth's surface
the amound of mass in a given volume of air
the most common gas in the atmosphere, making up 78% of gases in dry air
electromagnetic waves
a form of energy that can move through the vacuum of space
air pressure
the result of the weight of a column of air pushing down on an area
convection currents
the upward movement of warm air and the downward movement of cool air
ultraviolet radiation
this is an invisible form of energy with wavelegnths that are shorter than violet light. this can cause sunburns, skin caner, and eye damadge.
the force pushing on an area or surface
the transfer of heat by the movement of a fluid
this is the third layer in the atmosphere. above the stratosphere, a drop in temperature marks the beginning of the next layer, which is this. this layer begins 50 kilometers above earth's surface. this is the layer of teh atmosphere that protects earth's surface from being hit by most meteorites.
land breeze
the flow of air from land to a body of water
harmful substances in the air, water, or soil, that can affect the health of humans and other living things.
elevation. air pressure decreases as this increases. as air pressure decreases, so does density.
local winds
winds that blow over short distances, cause by the unequal heating of earth's surface
distance from the equator, measured in degrees
the inner, or lowest layer of earth's atmosphere, where conditions are more variable than in the other layers. this is where all of earth's weather occurs.

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