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science

Terms

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extrusive igneous rock
rock that forms from the cooling and solidification of lava at Earth's surface
intrusive igneous rock
rock formed from the cooling and solidification of magma beneath Earth's surface
orgianic sedimentary rock
sedimentary rock that forms from the remains of plants or animals
nonfoliated
the metamorphic rock texture in which mineral grains are not arranged in places or bands
metamorphism
the process in which one type of rock changes into metamorphic rock because of chemical processes or changes in temperature and pressure
igneous rock
rock that forms when magma cools and solidifies
foliation
the metamorphic rock texture in which mineral grains are arranged in places or bands
regional metamorphism
a change in the texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to changes in temperature and pressure over a large area, genreally as a result of tectonic forces
compaction
the process in which the volume and porosity of a sediment is decreased by the weight of overlying sediments as a result of burial beneath other sediments
Cementation
the process in which minerals precipitate into pore spaces between sediment grains and bind sediments together to form rock
rock cycle
the series of processes in which rock forms, changes from one type to another, is destroyed, and forms again by geological processes
Bowen's reaction series
the simplified pattern that illustrates the order in which minerals crystallize from cooling magma according to their chemical composition and melting point
felsic
describes magma or ignous rock that is rich in feldspar and silicon and is generally light in color
clastic sedimentary rock
sedimentday rock that forms when fragments of preexisting rocks are compacted or cemented together
chemical sedimentary rock
sedimentary rock that forms when minerals precipiate from a solution or settle from a suspension
mafic
describes magma or ignous rock that is rich in magnesium and iron and that is generally drark in color
contact metamorphism
a change in the texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to contact with magma

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