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Science Vocabulary

Chapter 6 science test

Terms

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Mafic
describes magma or igneous rock that is rich in magnesium and iron and that is generally dark in color.
Sediment
Rocks, mineral crystals, and organic matter that have been broken into fragments.
Rock
the material that makes up the solid parts of Earth.
extrusive igneous rock
rock that forms from the cooling and solidification of lava at Earth's surface.
nonfoliated
the metamorphic rock texture in which mineral grains are not arranged in planes or bands.
Bowen's reaction series
the simplified pattern that illustrates the order in which minerals crystallize from cooling magma according to their chemical composition and melting point.
Felsic
describes magma igneous rock that is rich in feldspar's and silica and that is generally light in color.
Cementation
the process in which minerals precipitate into pore spaces between sediment grains and bind sediments together to form rock.
clastic sedimentary rock
sedimentary rock that forms when fragments of preexisting rocks are compacted or cemented together.
foliation
the metamorphic rock texture in which mineral grains are arranged in planes or bands.
Magma
molten rock
Metamorphism
the process in which one type of rock changes into metamorphic rock because of chemical processes or changes in temperature and pressure.
Contact Metamorphism
a change in the texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to the contact with magma.
Compaction
the process in which the volume and porosity of a sediment is decreased by the weight of overlying sediments as a result of burial beneath other sediments.
chemical sedimentary rock
sedimentary rock that forms when minerals precipitate from a solution or settle fro ma suspension.
Intrusive Igneous Rock
rock formed form the cooling and solidification of magma beneath Earth's surface.
Sedimentary Rock
when sediment is carried away and deposits or compressed or cemented together and harden.
Regional Metamorphism
a change in the texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to the changes in temperature and pressure over a large area, generally as a result of tectonic forces.
Rock Cycle
the series of processes in which rock forms, changes form one type to another, is destroyed, and forms again by geological processes.
Metamorphic rock
the rock that forms when existing rock is formed.
Igneous Rock
rock that forms when magma cools and solidifies.

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