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Metamorphic and Sedimentary Rocks

Terms

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chemical sedimentary rocks
form when minerals are precipitated from a solution or left behind when a solution evaporates
sedimentary rocks
form when 1) sediments become pressed or cemented together, or when 2) sediments precipitate out of a solution
hydrate
to mix with water
rock salt
halite (a mineral) left behind when lakes and seas evaporate. Halite mixes with other minerals to form rock salt
foliated rocks
texture of rocks resulting from mineral grains flattening and lining up in parallel bands
organic sedimentary rocks
rocks formed from remains of once living things
organic
contain carbon that are typically found in living systems
slate
forms from the sedimaqntary rock = shale is easily separated along these foliation layers
erosion
the movement of weathered material
coquina
made from shells of mussels, coral, and snails
marble
forms from the sedimentary rock limestone (which is composed of calcite)
examples of chemical sedimentary rocks
1) limestones 2) rock salt
non-foliated rocks
texture of rocks where the mineral grains grow, change, and rearrange but do not form bands
examples of organic sedimentary rocks
fossil-rich limestone, coquina, and coal
3 major rock types
igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary
examples of foliated rocks
slate and gneiss
2 things sedimentary rocks are classified by
1) composition, 2) the way they form
gneiss foliated rock that forms when granite and other rocks are changed or rearranged into alternating bands
foliated rock that forms when granite and other rocks are changed or rearranged into alternating bands
waste coal
a poor quality coal that is a by-product of coakl mining
coal
made from dead plants compacted over millions of years
detrital
sedimentary rocks made from the broken fragnments of other rocks that are compacted and cemented together
rocks
a mixture of minerals, mineraloids, glass, or organic matter
examples of non-foliated rocks
quartzite and marble
compaction
pressure upon layers of built up small sedimants on lower layers causing lower layers to stick together and form solid rock
sediments
loose material, such as rock fragments, mineral grains, and bits of plant and animal remains moved by wind, water, ice, gravity, or dissoloved in water
weathering
process that breaks rocks into smaller pieces
metamorphic rocks
rocks that have changed due to temperature and pressure
igneous rocks
rocks formed by the cooling of molten rock (either magma or lava)
quartzite
non-foliated rock resulting from heat and pressure on sandstone (which is composed mostly of quartz minerals)
limestone
when calcite in ocean water comes together (comes out of a solution) the crystals grow together usually on the ocean floor
congeneration
when both electrical and thermal energy produced by burning waste-coal used by the same plant (to run the plant)
classifications of sedimentary rocks
detrital, chemical, and organic
cementation
when the solution of water and dissolved minerals move through open spaces between sediments and cement the sediments together
fossil-rich limestone
contains remains of once living ocean animals along with calcite (chemical limestone)

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