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Science vocabulary

Terms

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Chemical Sedimentary Rock
Sedimentary rock that forms when minerals precipitate from a solution or settle from a suspension.
Mafic
Describes magma or igneous rock that is rich in magnesium and iron and that is generally dark in color.
Organic Sedimentary Rock
Sedimentary rock that forms from the remains of plants or animals.
Metamorphism
The process in which one type of rock changes into metamorphic rock because of chemical processes or changes in temperature and pressure
Igneous Rock
Rock that forms when magma cools and solidifies.
Nonfoliated
The metamorphic rock texture in which mineral grains are not arranged in planes or bands.
Compaction
The process in which the volume and porosity of a sediment is decreased by the weight of overlying sediments as a result of burial beneath other sediments.
Felsic
Describes magma or igneous rock that is rich in feldspars and silica and that is generally light in color.
Bowen's Reaction Series
The simplified pattern that illustrates the order in which minerals crysallize from cooling magma according to their chemical composition and melting point.
Foliation
The metamorphic rock texture in which mineral grains are arranged in planes or bands.
Regional Metamorphism
A change in the texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to changes in temperature and pressure over a large area, generally as a result of tectonic forces.
Clastic Sedimentary Rock
Sedimentary rock that forms when fragments of preexisting rocks are compacted or cemented together.
Intrusive Igneous Rock
Rock formed from the cooling and solidification of magma beneath Earth's surface.
Extrusive Igneous Rock
Rock that forms from the cooling and solidification of lava at Earth's surface.
Cementation
The process in which minerals precipitate into pore spaces between sediment grains and bind sediments together to form rock.
Contact Metamorphism
A change in the texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to contact with magma.
Rock Cycle
The series of processes in which rock forms, changes from one type to another, is destroyed, and forms again by geological processes.

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