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AP Biology

Second Vocabulary Set.


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having an affinity for water.
amino group
A functional group that consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms; can act as a base in solution, accepting a hydrogen ion and acquiring a charge of +1.
the attraction of an atom for the electrons of a covalent bond.
having an aversion to water; tending to coalesce and form droplets in water.
the capacity to do work (to move matter against an opposing force)
molecules that are mirror images of each other
A giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules, usually by a condensation reaction. Polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids are macromolecules.
hydroxyl group
the functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom joined to an oxygen atom by a polar covalent bond. molecules possessing this group are soluble in water and are called alcohols.
chemical bonds
an attraction between two atoms resulting from a sharing of outter-shell electrons or the presence of opposite charges on the atoms; the bonded atoms gain complete outer electron shells.
organic compounds containing hydroxyl groups.
chemical equilibrium
in a reversible chemical reaction, the point at which the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction.
ionic bond
a chemical bond resulting from the attraction between oppositely charged ions.
electron shells
an energy level representing the distance of an electron from the nucleus of an atom.
the dissolving agent of a solution. water is the most versative solvent known.
surface tension
a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid. water has a high surface tension because the hydrogen bonding of surface molecules.
covalent bond
a type of strong chemical bond in which atoms share me pair of valence electrons.
the total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter. heat is energy in its most random fear.
molecular formula
the type of molecular notation indicating only the quantity of the constituent atoms.
one of several atomic forms of an element, each containing a different number of neutrons and thus differing in atomic mass.
An organic molecule with a carbonyl group located at the end of the carbon skeleton.
A sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharides) or polymers (polysaccharides).
structural isomers
compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms.
an organic molecule consisting only of carbon & hydrogen.
the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1 degree C, also the amount of heat energy that 1g of water releases when it cooks by 1 degree C. the Calorie indicates the energy content of food, a kilocalorie.
functional groups
the specific configuration of atoms commonly attached by the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions.
one of several organic compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and therefore different properties. the three types of isomers are structural isomers, geometric isomers, and enantimers.
a negatively charged ion.
a measure of the intensity of heat in degrees, reflecting the average kinetic energy of the molecules.
The simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides. Also known as simple sugars, the molecular formulas of monosaccharides are generally some multiple of CH2O.
sulfhydryl group
A functional group consisting of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom (—SH).
organic chemistry
the study of carbon compounds
the binding together of like molecules, often by hydrogen bonds.
carbonyl group
a functional group present in aldehydes and ketones and consisting of a single carbon atom double-bounded to an oxygen atom.
A chemical process that lyses, or splits, molecules by the addition of water; an essential process in digestion.
evaporative cooling
the property of a liquid whereby the surface becomes cooler during evaporation, owing to a loss of highly kinetic molecules to the gaseous state.
the attraction between different kinds of molecules.
valence electrons
the electrons in the outtermost electron shell.
polar covalent bond
a type of covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity. the shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom, making it slightly negative and the other atom slightly positive.
hydrogen bond
a type of weak chemical bond formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecules.
the number of grams of a substance that equals its molecular weight in daltons and contains avagadro's number of molecules.
specific heat
the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost for 1g of a substance to change its temperature by 1 degree C.
carboxyl group
A functional group present in organic acids and consisting of a single carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group.
3D space or volume within which an electron is most likely to be found.
aqeous solution
a solution in which water is the solvent.
an ion with a positive charge, produced by the loss of one or more electrons.
geometric isomers
compounds that have the same molecular formual but different in the spatial arrangements of their atoms.
An organic compound with a carbonyl group of which the carbon atom is bonded to two other carbons.
molecular weight
the sum of weights of al the atoms in a molecule.
a common measure of solute concentration, referring to the number of moles of solute in 1L of solution.
phosphate group
A functional group important in energy transfer.

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