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History 122 Ch 29


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ch 29 In 1968, the militant American Indian Movement (AIM) was organized. As a method of protest, in November 1969, Native Americans seized and occupied _______ for over a year. Later, protesters occupied the Federal Bureau of Indian Affairs in Washington D.C. In February 1973, AIM activists began an occupation of Wounded Knee, South Dakota, the site of an army massacre of the Sioux in 1890. The seventy-one-day siege, in which the FBI killed one protestor and wounded another, alienated many whites, but it spurred government action on tribal issues.
ch 29 What happened to Lieutenant William L. Calley for his part in the massacre of 350 villagers in Mu Lai?
He was sentenced to life in prison, but President Nixon had Calley's sentence reduce; and he was paroled in 1974.
ch 29 African Americans' struggle toward civil rights provided a fresh and innovative model for other groups seeking to expand their rights. The situation of Mexican Americans changed when the ______ ______ _____ _______ mobilized support for John F. Kennedy and worked with other groups to elect Mexican American candidates to Congress.
Mexican American Political Association (MAPA). MAPA and other organizations worked successfully to elect Mexican Americans to political office.
ch 29 What was in the report of the National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders (also known as the Kerner Commission)?
It detailed the continuing inequality and racism of urban life. The report warned against the growth of two separate and unequal societies in the United States.
ch 29 Name some opponents of the Vietnam War.
Daniel Ellsberg, a former Pentagon official; Senator Edward Kennedy; John Paul Vann - a well-known army lieutenant supported the US commitment to the war, but criticized the way it was being fought.
ch 29 Who broke the story of the massacre of 350 villagers in My Lai?
Investigative reporter Seymour Hersh of the New York Times.
ch 29 Why did the founders of the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) refer to themselves as the "New Left"?
To distinguish themselves from the "Old Left" of Communists and Socialists of the 1930s and 1940s.
ch 29 Describe Title VII.
It barred discrimination in employment on the basis of race, religion, national origin, or sex. It eventually became a powerful tool against sex discrimination.
ch 29 Chicano strategists also pursued economic objectives. César Chávez organized the United Farm Workers (UFW), the first _____ to represent migrant workers successfully.
Union. A 1965 grape pickers' strike and a nationwide boycott of table grapes brought Chavez and his union national publicity and won support from the AFL-CIO and from Senator Robert Kennedy. Victory came in 1970 when California grape growers signed contracts recognizing the UFW.
ch 29 What was the revolutionary movement called in south Vietnam?
The National Liberation Front (NLF).
ch 29 What the "Tet" offensive?
A well-coordinated assault on major urban areas in South Vietnam by the Vietcong. The forces struck capitals and major cities, including Saigon, where they raided the US embassy. The Tet offensive was unsuccessful for the Vietcong since it did not provoke the intended collapse of the South Vietnamese Govt.
ch 29 Nixon traveled to Moscow to sign the first Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) between the United States and the Soviet Union. What was SALT I?
It limited the production and deployment of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) and antiballistic missile systems (ABMs); The treaty also signified that the US could no longer afford the massive military spending that would have been necessary to attain the nuclear and military superiority it had enjoyed following WWII.
ch 29 What was the Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), founded by students from Big Ten and Ivy League universities?
A group of students who were disturbed by the gap they perceived between the ideals they had been taught to revere and the realities in American life. They rejected Cold War ideology and foreign policy, including but not limited to the Vietnam conflict. They consciously adopted the activist tactics pioneered by members of the civil rights movement by turning to grassroots organizations organizing in cities and on college campuses.
ch 29 The "______" symbolized the new counterculture, a youthful movement that glorified liberation from traditional social strictures.
ch 29 Economic developments put President Johnson and his advisors even more on the defensive. The costs of the Vietnam war became evident as the growing federal deficit nudged the inflation rate upward, beginning the inflationary spiral that plagued the U.S. economy throughout the 1970s. Between 1963 and 1965, peace activists staged periodic ____, ______, _____ & ______-______ campaigns against US involvement in the war.
protests, vigils, and petition- and letter-writing campaigns
ch 29 After Kennedy's assassination, top U.S. advisors argued that a full-scale deployment was needed to prevent the defeat of the South Vietnamese. In the summer of 1964, President Lyndon Johnson announced to Congress that North Vietnamese torpedo boats had attacked American destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin, and he requested the authority to "repel any armed attack" against U.S. forces in the area. What did Johnson receive?
The Gulf of Tonkin resolution. This authorized Johnson to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the US and to prevent further aggression. Johnson's deceptive characterization of the unverified attack gave him a sweeping mandate to conduct operations in Vietnam as he saw fit. The Tonkin resolution represented a significant expansion of presidential power.
ch 29 The National Liberation Front's (NLF) guerrilla forces (Vietcong) made considerable headway against Diem's regime. Anti-Diem sentiment flourished among Buddhists who charged the government with religious persecution. As opposition to Diem deepened, President Kennedy decided that the leader would have to be removed. What happened?
Diem was driven from office and assassinated by South Vietnamese officers. America's role in the coup reinforced links between the United States and the new regime in South Vietnam, making the prospect of withdrawal from the region less acceptable to US policymakers
ch 29 What was the Nation of Islam (popularly known as the Black Muslims)?
an organization that stressed black pride, unity, and self-help and was hostile to whites--revived black separatism. The Black Muslims' most charismatic figure, Malcolm X, advocated militant protest and separatism, although he condoned the use of violence only for self-defense. Malcolm X eventually broke with the Nation of Islam and was assassinated by three Black Muslims while delivering a speech in Harlem in 1965.
ch 29 What fractured the Democratic party during the 1968 election?
Controversy over the Vietnam war.
ch 29 What were the Geneva Accords?
partitioned Vietnam temporarily at the seventeenth parallel and committed France to withdraw its forces from the area north of that line.
ch 29 What was Operation Rolling Thunder?
A long-drawn out bombing campaign
ch 29 To prevent a Communist victory in the elections mandated by the accords, President Eisenhower saw to it that a pro-American government took power in South Vietnam under the leadership of anti-Communist Ngo Dinh Diem. So that Ho Chi Minh could not manipulate an electoral victory, what did Diem do?
Diem called off the reunification elections that had been scheduled for 1956, as he was confident that Ho Chi Minh would win easily in the North and the South. The United States supported this move.
ch 29 The nature of the Vietnam war went against all expectations: guerrilla warfare was barbaric, intense, and episodic. Rarely were there ______ -______ battles, only skirmishes.
ch 29 What was stated in the manifesto (written by Tom Hayden) for Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)? And what was the manifesto called?
Their manifesto expressed their disillusionment with the consumer culture and the gulf between the prosperous and the poor and rejected Cold War ideology and foreign policy. It was called the Port Huron Statement,
ch 29 What did opponents of the National Liberation Front (NLF)s call their guerilla force?
ch 29 What was the effect of Operation Rolling Thunder on the Vietnamese?
Despite its ravaging effect on human life and agricultural production, the bombing had little effect on the ability of the North Vietnamese to wage war and only strengthened their resolve. The flow of troops and supplies continued unabated as the North Vietnamese quickly rebuilt roads and bridges, moved munitions plants underground, and constructed a network of tunnels and shelters. Operation Rolling Thunder intensified their will to fight.
ch 29 North American Indians suffered the highest levels of:
unemployment and poverty, the most inadequate housing, and the least access to education. Some Indian groups became more assertive, taking the new label of Native Americans, embracing the concept of "Red Power," and organizing protests and demonstrations.
ch 29 War of Attrition
A military strategy of small-scale attacks used, usually by the weaker side, to sap the resources and the morale of the adversary.
ch 29 What did the administration hope Thieu's regime in South Vietnam would accomplish?
They hoped it would stabilize politics in South Vietnam, advance the military struggle against the Communists, and legitimize the South Vietnamese govt in the eyes of the American public.
ch 29 Antiwar demonstrators denounced the new Vietnamization policy, which protected American lives at the expense of the Vietnamese. More than 450 colleges closed in protest, and 80 percent of all campuses experienced some kind of disturbance. What happened at Kent State University?
Panicky National Guardsmen shot into a crowd of students at an antiwar rally. Four were killed/11 wounded; Two of those who were killed were attending the demonstration; the other two were passersby on their way to class.
ch 29 When intensified bombing in Cambodia (unknown to the American public) failed to end the war, Nixon and national security advisor, Henry Kissinger, adopted a policy of Vietnamization, replacing American troops with _______ _______ forces.
South Vietnamese
ch 29 In 1972, Nixon traveled to _______ in a symbolic visit that set the stage for the establishment of formal diplomatic relations.
ch 29 In 1966 the Johnson administration pressured the unpopular Vietnamese govt to adopt _______ _______, including a new constitution and popular elections.
democratic reforms
ch 29 What were the Paris Peace Accords?
On January 27, 1973, representative of the US, North & South Vietnam, and the Vietcong signed a cease-fire in Paris. It mandated the unilateral withdrawal of American troops in exchange for the return of American prisoners of war from North Vietnam.
ch 29 Why did the administrations of Truman and Eisenhower provide substantial military support to the French in Vietnam?
Aid was essential to prevent the collapse of all non-Communist goverments in the region; US policy makers feared that the loss of any pro-Western govt would prompt a chain reaction of losses called the domino effect
ch 29 By the early 1970s, what limited and reshaped the US aims and options in international relations?
Inflation, domestic dissent, and the decline in American hegemony.
ch 29 How did Lyndon Johnson have to face the reality of large-scale public opposition to his war policies?
Nationwide student strikes, mass demonstrations, and other organized protests became commonplace. In October 1967 over 100,000 antiwar demonstrators marched on Washington as part of "Stop the Draft Week". The event culminated in a "seize of the Pentagon", in which protestors clashed with police and federal marshals.
ch 29 What were a few economic results of the Vietnam War?
The war siphoned resources from domestic needs, added to the deficit, and fueled inflation; and domestic reform efforts slowed.
ch 29 Eisenhower had no intention of allowing a Communist victory in Vietnam's upcoming election. What did he do?
He made sure that a pro-American govt took power in South Vietnam in June 1954, just b4 the Geneva Accords were signed.
ch 29 What was the War Powers Act?
It required the president to report any use of military force within 48 hours and directed that without a declaration of war by Congress hostilities must cease within 60 days
ch 29 Why was Lieutenant William L. Calley court-martialed in 1971?
For atrocities committed in the village of My Lai. In March 1968, acting under orders from his superiors, Calley and the platoon under his command had apparently murdered 350 Vietnamese villagers in retaliation for casualties sustained in an earlier engagement. The incident came to light because 1 platoon member refused to go along with a military cover-up.
ch 29 Younger Mexican Americans quickly grew impatient with Mexican American Political Association (MAPA). What group did these younger Mexicans form?
The Brown Berets - modeled after the Black Panthers. They rejected the assimilationist approach of their elders. They proclaimed a new term - Chicano- to replace Mexican American; and organized a new political party called La Raza Unida (The United Race). They pressed for bilingual education, the hiring of more Chicano teachers, and the creation of Chicano studies programs. By the 1970s dozens of such programs were offered at universities throughout the region.
ch 29 How long did US troops fight in Vietnam?
more than 11 years - from 1961 to 1973. This was the nation's longest war.
ch 29 Name the Communist nationalistic group that led Vietnamese resistance to the Japanese?
ch 29 How did young men avoid the draft in the mid 1960s?
Some enlisted in the National Guard or the reserves; others declared themselves conscientious objectors; some ignored their induction notices; others left the country. In public demonstrations of civil disobedience, opponents of the war burned their draft cards, closed down induction centers, and on a few occasions broke into Selective Service offices and destroyed records.
ch 29 What were "gooks"?
Differentiating between friendly South Vietnamese and Vietcong sympathizers was difficult, so many soldiers lumped them together as "gooks".
ch 29 What did Nixon hope to achieve with the revived Paris peace negotiations?
Nixon hoped to undercut antiwar critics by making concessions to the North Vietnamese in the peace talks. In October Henry Kissinger and the North Vietnamese negotiator Le Duc Tho reached a cease-fire agreement calling for the withdrawal of the remaining US troops, the return of all American prisoners of war, and the continued presence of North Vietnamese troops in South Vietnam. Nixon and Kissinger also promised the North Vietnamese substantial aid for post war reconstruction.
ch 29 A more secular black Nationalist movement calling for "Black Power" emerged in 1966. What was it called?
The Black Panthers. The organization was founded to protect blacks from police violence. Racial riots over police brutality against blacks caused death, destruction of property, and looting in cities across the United States beginning in 1964.
ch 29 Why did students demand that the Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) be removed from their schools?
Students realized that their universities were deeply implicated in the war effort. In some cases as much as 60% of a university's research budget came from govt contracts, especially those of the Defense Department. The students argued that universities should not train students for war.
ch 29 What were key feminist goals?
Child care, equal pay, and abortion rights. Radical women realized these rights could best be achieved in the political arena.
ch 29 September 1967 the administration helped elect General _______ ____ _________ president of South Vietnam.
Nguyen Van Thieu.
ch 29 How did Vietnam veterans find the transition to civilian life when they returned home?
abrupt and disorientating.
ch 29 Through groups like the Grey Panthers, what did elderly Americans demand?
better healthcare, Social Security, and other benefits.
ch 29 By the late 1960s public opinion began to turn against the war in Vietnam, as television brought film of the fighting directly into the nation's living rooms. Despite glowing reports filed by the media and administration on the progress of the war, by 1967 many administration officials privately reached a more pessimistic conclusion regarding the war. The administration was accused of suffering from a __________ ____________.
"Credibility Gap". The administration, they charged, was concealing important and discouraging information about the war's progress.
ch 29 Detente
From the French word for a relaxation of tension, this term was used to signify the new foreign policy of President Nixon, which sought a reduction of tension & hostility between the US, and the Soviet Union and China in the early 1970s.
ch 29 What was the purpose of Nixon's Detente policy?
To seek peaceful coexistence with the two Communist powers (China & the Soviet Union), and to link his overtures of friendship with a plan to end the Vietnam war. Nixon urged Soviet and Chinese leaders to reduce their military aid as a means of pressuring the North Vietnamese to the negotiating table.
ch 29 Some Americans argued that the war was ____________ to American ideals, that American involvement would not help the Vietnamese, and that the goal of an independent, anti-Communist South Vietnam was unattainable.
ch 29 How did Cold War consensus shared by Eisenhower and subsequent presidents view Vietnam?
They saw Vietnam as part of the larger struggle to contain the Soviet Union and the Communist threat to the free world
ch 29 How did President Kennedy view Vietnam?
Kennedy looked to Vietnam as a testing ground for his experiments in counterinsurgency warfare and increased the number of military "advisors"- helicopter units and special forces- stationed in Vietnam to more than 16,000 by November 1963.

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