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COnsumer Behavior 2


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A learned and lasting predisposition to evalueate people, objects and issues either positively or negatively
Functional Theory of Attitudes
Explains how attitudes facilitate social behavior

Utilitarian- attitudes b/c somethign brings about pleasure or pain
Value expressive- Express the core beleifs or values of a person
Ego defensive- defend a person against external threats or internal feelings
Knowledge function- due to one's desire to have order, structure, and meaning
ABC Model of attitudes
A- Affect- The feelings about an Attitude Object

B- Behavior- The intended behavior one tends to act out

C- Cognition- The beleifs one forms about an A.O
Standard Learning Heirarchy
One forms beliefs based on examining product attributes, these beliefs lead to feelings being formed, and the feelings lead to an action---
High involvement, assumes one will actively seek out info and make an informed choice
Low Involvement Heirarchy
Belief Behavior affect
-Choice is reinforced bey good or bad experiences after the purchase. COnsumer uses what little knowledge they have to make a choice. THe less a consumer knows, the more impacted they are by gimmicks and packaging
Experiential heirarchy
affect behavior belief

New studies have found that belief and cognition are semi-independent systems, and that affective responses don't always require prior cognition.
-More likely to occur when the produt is primarily expressive or delivers sensory pleasures.
Attitude Formation (3 ways)
Classical Conditioning- tying an attitude object to a catchy jingle

Instrumental conditioning- reinforcing the consumption of a product

Cognitive learning- following the attitudes and behaviors of others
Three levels of commitment to an attitude
1. Compliance- taken on to reduce punishment or maximize reward
2. Identification- formed to conform with a person or group
3. Internalization- made a part of one's value system
COgnative Consistency Principle
People desire a harmony among their beliefs, feelings, and actions and will change them to make them consistent with other experiences.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
When a person is confronted with inconsistencies between their attitudes and behaviors, some action will be taken to resolve this dissonance. (either by adding, reducing, or changing elements)
Self-perception theory
We form attitudes based on our observations of our behavior

-we must have a positive attitude towards a product if we bought it.
--works with low-involvement heirarchy in which actions are initially taken in the absence of strong feelings and with the foot in the door techniques
Social judgement theory
Assumes people assimilate new information in light of what they already know.
--initial attitudes act as a frame of reference
--know latitude of acceptance and rejection and the theories of assimilation and contrast
Balance Theory
Considers relations among a person, they're perceptions of an attitude object, and another person. These three things must always be in balance.

Unit Relation- one abject is seen as being part of another
Sentiment relation- 2 elements likned b/c one has expressed a preference for the other
3 elements of an attitude
1. Attribute- the characteristics of a A.O.
2. Beliefs-COgnitions about an A.O.
3. Importance weights- relative priority of an attribute
Fishbein Model
Measures three components of an attitude:
1. Salient Beliefs-beliefs about an A.O. considered during evaluation
2. Object-attribut linkages- probability that a particular object has improtant attributes
3. Evaluationof each of the important attributes.

ASSUMES we can name all the important attributes and that consumers will go through the identifying and summing process.
Strategic Applications of Fishbein Model
1. Capitalize on Relative advantages
2. Strengthen perceived product/attribute linkage
3. Add new attribute
4. Influence competitors ratings
Extended Fishbein Model
Factors in social pressure- the influence other's have over our behavior but examining subjective norms-what we think others think we should do in a situation, as well as normative beliefs- others think an action should be taken. In addition, we examine one's motivation to comply and the attitude they have toward buying.
Theory of Trying to consume
focuses on consumer's goals and what they feel is necessary for them to obtain them. Includes factors such as the amount of control one has over a situation, expectation of succcess/failure, social norms of the goal, and attitude toward/frequency of/and recency of trying.
attitude surveys/tracking surveys/what to look for
attitude surveys are snapshots in time, while tracking surveys occur over regular intervals. Look for changes in demographics, future plans and expectation and identify change agents if possible.
A transactional and symbolic process that allows a person to manage and relate to their environment by establishing human contact, exchanging information, reinforcing the attitudes and behaviors of others, and changing the attitudes and behaviors of others
reactions by recievers used to modify aspects of the message
Uses and Gratification Theory
consumers are an active, goal oriented audience that draws on mass media to satisfy needs/wants
-focus on what people do with the media
FIrst-order response/Second-order response
First order-a person responds to aproduct offer with a transaction
2nd order- customer feedback in response to a marketing message
Source of a message can have a big impact on its acceptance
-source credibility, attractiveness, and power are all aspects
celebritites as communication sources
-typically brought in for products with high social risk (jewelry, furniture)
-important for products whose difference isn't percievable to consumers
-has a better chance if similarities b/t celeb and product are high
SLeeper Effect
forgetting about a negative source and changing ones attitude anyways

Dissociative cue hypothesis-over time the message and the source become dissasociated

Availability/Valence hypothesis- memory is selective due to its limited capacity
Repetition (mere exposure effect, habituation, ad-wear out, and 2 factor theory)
Mere exposure effect- people like things that are familiar to them

Habituation- consumer no longer pays attention due to boredom

ad wear out- negative reaction to an ad due to seeing it too much

2 factor theory- explains fine line between familiarity and boredom
refutational argument
a minor negative issue is raised and then dismissed
When are fear and sex appeals most useful
sex- when the product has sexual ties
fear- when the threat is moderate and a solution is given
A story explaining an abstract trait that has been personified as an animal, person, or vegetable
Combines a play on words with a relevant picture
transformational advertising
consumer associates the use of a product with some subjective sensation
ELM (Elaboration Likelihood model)
high involvement- consumer takes central route to persuasion (person actively thinks about arguments and presents a counter argument....beleifs are caredully formed....quality of message factors and ammount of previous knowledge are important

Low Involvement- a peripheral route to persuasion is taken-person isn't motivated to think about arguments, other cues such as product packaging are used (called peripheral cues-extraneous to actual message)

High involvement look for steak, low involvement look for sizzle
The accumulation of shared meanings, norms, rituals, and traditions among members of a society or organization
3 functional areas of culture
Ecology- the way in which a system is adapted to its habitat
Social structure- the way in which an orderly social life is maintained
ideology- the mental characteristics of a people and the way in which they relate to their environment and social groups
Common worldview and ethos
C.W.V.- share certain ideas about principles of order and fairness
ethos- a set of moral and aesthetic principles
4 Dimmensions of how cultures vary
power distance- how individuals for relationships when there is a perceived power difference

Uncertainty avoidance- the degree to which people feel threatened by ambiguous situations and the beliefs that help them avoid them

Masculitiy/Feminitiy- how sex roles are dillineated

Individualism/Collectivism- Whether individual or group goals are stressed
general ideas about good and bad goals
rules dictating what is good or bad/acceptable or not
enacted vs. cresive norms
enacted- explicitly decided on
cresive- embeded in the culture
custom- a norm handed down from the past that addresses basic behavior

more- a custom with a strong moral overtone

convention- norm regarding the conduct of everyday life.
a story containing symbolic elements that represents the emotions and ideals of a culture
4 functions of a myth
metaphysical- attempt to explain the origins of us
cosmological- attempt to tie all components of the universe into a single picture
sociological- attempt to maintain social order by suggesting a code to be followed
psychological- provide models of personal conduct
Binary Opposition/Mediating figure
Binary opposition- displays two opposing ends to some dimmension

Mediating figure- attempts to tie the two opposites by illustrating shared characteristics
a set of symbolic behaviors taht occur in a fixed sequence and tend to be repeated periodically
2 views on gift-giving
form of economic exchange- giver transfers somethign of value to the reciever

symbolic exchange- giver wants to acknowlege something intangible
3 stages of gift giving
gestation- giver is motivated by an event to procure a gift
presentation- the exchange takes place
reformulation- the relationship between the giver and the recipient is adjusted
Rites of passage
special times marked by change in social status
3 phases of role transition
seperation- individual seperated from original group or status
liminality- middle stage in which individual is between stages
aggregation- person re-enters society after role change is complete.
a place is given sacred qualities due to a sacred event happeneing there
sacred qualities attached to every day items

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