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Gov list 10

Terms

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Aids to Families with dependent children
a federal assistance program in effect from 1935 to 1997,[1] which was administered by the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The program was created under the name Aid to Dependent Children (ADC) by the Social Security Act of 1935 as part of the New Deal; the words "families with" were added to the name in 1960, partly due to concern that the program's rules discouraged marriage.[2] By 1996 spending was $24 billion per year. When adjusted for inflation, the highest spending was in 1976, which exceeded 1996 spending by about 8%.[3]
Joint Chiefs of Staff
a group comprising the Chiefs of service of each major branch of the armed services in the United States armed forces. Similar organizations, sometimes known as Chiefs of Staff Committees (COSCs) in the Commonwealth of Nations, are common in other countries.
Muller v Oregon
a landmark decision in United States Supreme Court history, as it relates to both sex discrimination and labor laws. The case upheld Oregon state restrictions on the working hours of women as justified by the special state interest in protecting women's health.
Mapp v Ohio
a landmark case in the area of U.S. criminal procedure, in which the United States Supreme Court decided that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment protection against "unreasonable searches and seizures" may not be used in criminal prosecutions in state courts, as well as federal courts.
Sherbert v Verner
a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the Free Exercise Clause of the First Amendment required that government demonstrate a compelling government interest before denying unemployment compensation to someone who was fired because her job conflicted with her religion.
Brown v Board
a landmark decision of the United States Supreme Court, which overturned earlier rulings going back to Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896, by declaring that state laws which established separate public schools for black and white students denied black children equal educational opportunities. Handed down on May 17, 1954, the Warren Court's unanimous (9-0) decision stated that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." As a result, de jure racial segregation was ruled a violation of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. This victory paved the way for integration and the Civil Rights Movement.
Regents of the UC v Bakke
The Court held that while affirmative action systems are constitutional, a quota system based on race is unconstitutional.
Miranda v Arizona
a landmark 5-4 decision of the United States Supreme Court which was argued February 28-March 1, 1966 and decided June 13, 1966. The Court held that criminal suspects must be informed of their right to consult with an attorney and of their right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police. The Miranda warning required by the Supreme Court in this case is an example of a prophylactic rule formulated by the judiciary in order to protect a constitutional right.
Consumer Price Index
an index number measuring the average price of consumer goods and services purchased by households. It is one of several price indices calculated by national statistical agencies. The percent change in the CPI is a measure of inflation. The CPI can be used to index (i.e., adjust for the effects of inflation) wages, salaries, pensions, or regulated or contracted prices. The CPI is, along with the population census and the National Income and Product Accounts, one of the most closely watched national economic statistics.
Hazelwood School District v Kuhlmeier
The Court held that public school curricular student newspapers that have not been established as forums for student expression are subject to a lower level of First Amendment protection than independent student expression or newspapers established (by policy or practice) as forums for student expression.

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