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Psych 240


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The single cell formed from the fusing of two gametes, a sperm and an ovum
In which new experiences are reinterpreted to fit into, or assimilate with, old ideas.
In social learning theory, the belief of some people that they are able to change themselves and effectively alter the social context.
In which old ideas are restructured to include, or accommodate, new experiences.
Studies observable behavior, it is also called learning theory because it describes the laws and processes by which behavior is learned
Cross Sectional Research
A research design that compares groups of people who differ in age but are similar in other important aspects.
Scientific Method
A way to answer questions that requires empirical research and data based conclusions.
Classical Conditioning
The learning response that connects a meaningful stimulus with a neutral stimulus that had no special meaning before conditioning,
A specific prediction that is stated in such a way that it can be tested and either confirmed or refuted.
Positive Correlation
Occurs if both variables tend to increase together or decrease together
Elements of the person's immediate surroundings, such as family and peer group
Local institutions as school and church
Comparison/Control Group
The dependent variable
Science of Human Development
The science that seeks to understand how and why people change or remain the same over time,
Scientific Observation
A method of testing hypotheses by unobtrusively watching and recording participant's behavior in a systematic and objective manner.
Dependent Variable
In an experiment, the variable that may change as a result of whatever new condition or situation the experimenter adds. The dependent variable depends on the independent variable.
Bronfenbrenner's three systems represented in his Ecological Model
Microsystems, Macrosystems, and Exosystems
Emergent Theories
They may become the new systematic and comprehensive theories of the future
A group of people who are regarded as genetically distinct from other groups on the basis of physical appearance
An organism's entire genetic inheritance, or genetic potential.
Phallic Stage
3 to 6 Years
Development Theory
A systematic statement of principles and generalizations that provides a coherent framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older
Epigenetic Theory
That genes interact with the environment to allow development.
Psychoanalytic Theory
A grand theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior
The larger social setting, including cultural values, economic policies, and political processes
Social Construction
An idea that is built more on shared perceptions than on objective reality. Age related terms i.e. childhood, adolescence, yuppies, and senior citizens are social constructions.
23rd Pair
A 23rd chromosome pair that, in humans, determines the zygotes( the person's) sex.
Independent Variable
In an experiment, the variable that is introduced to see what effect it has on the dependent variable. AKA Experimental Variable
Refers to all the environmental influences, beginning with the mother's health and diet during prenatal development and continuing lifelong, including the individual's experiences with family, school, community, and society
One of the 46 molecules( 23 pairs) of DNA that each cell of the human body contains and that, together, contain all the genes.
Referring to a trait that is influenced by many genes
Ecological-Systems Approach
A vision of how human development should be studied, with the person considered in all the contexts and interactions that constitute a life.
Anal Stage
1 to 3 Years
Longitudinal Research
A research design in which the same individuals are followed over time and their development is repeatedly addressed.
Socioeconomic Status (SES)
A person's position in society as determined by income, wealth, occupation, education, place of residence, and other factors.
Experimental Group
A group of participants in a research study who experience some special treatment or condition (the independent variable)
Down Syndrome
People with this have three copies of chromosome 21, a.k.a. Trisomy-21
There are 25,000 in the human genome, carries the instructions for making a specific type of protein
Butterfly Effect
The idea that a small effect or thing can have a large impact if it happens to tip the balance, causing other changes that create a major event.
The central process of social learning, by which a person observes the actions of others and then copies them
Dynamic-Systems Theory
A view of human development as always changing. Life is the product of ongoing interaction between the physical and emotional being and between the person and every aspect of his or her environment, including the family and society.
Ethnic Group
People whose ancestors were born in the same region and who often share a language, culture, and religion
The repetition of a scientific study, using the same procedures on a similar group of participants, in order to verify, refine, or dispute the original study's conclusions.
Zero Correlation
Occurs if no connection is evident
Mirror Neurons
Brain cells that respond to actions performed by someone else, as if the observer had done that action.
Social Learning Theory
Its central premise is that humans can learn from observing others, without personally experiencing any reinforcement
Turner Syndrome
The woman has underdeveloped female organs
The process by which responses become linked to particular stimuli.
Operant Conditioning
The learning process by which a particular action is followed by something desired or by something unwanted
Cross Sequential Research
A hybrid research method that applies both longitudinal and a cross sectional research.
A research method in which information is collected from a large number of people by interviews, written questions etc.
Cognitive Theory
A grand theory of human development that focuses on changes in how people think over time. According to this theory, our thoughts shape our attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors
Based on observation, experience, or experiment, not theoretical. Facts.
Case Study
A research method in which one individual is studied intensively
Oral Stage
Birth to 1 Year
The observable characteristics of a person, including appearance, personality, intelligence, and all other traits
Sociocultural Theory
Human development results from the dynamic interaction between developing persons and their surrounding society
Refers to the genes that people inherit
Negative Correlation
Occurs if one variable tends to increase when the other decreases
Each human reproductive cell(gametes) contains 23 chromosomes half of the humans 46.
Grand Theories
Describe universal processes and development throughout the entire life span. Includes: Psychoanalytic theory, behaviorism, and cognitive theory.
The molecule that contains the chemical instructions for cells to manufacture various proteins
Klinefelter Syndrome
The male penis stops growth at age 12 and he begins to develop fat around the breasts

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