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Advanced Grammar and Composition Test

Terms

undefined, object
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interesar(le)
to interest; to be interested in
Q. Main Clause: Imperfect or preterite, pluperfect indicative, conditional, conditional perfect:
Imperfect subjunctive
de + simple infinitive or de + compound infinitive is sometimes used instead of:
a si clause, especially in the case of contrary to fact conditions
Quién + third person singular imperfect subjunctive or third person singular pluperfect subjunctive also refers to:
a wish of the speaker.
quieras o no (quieras)
whether you be willin gor not (used in any person)
Se + verb in third person singluar or plural is equivalent to the passive voice with ser + past participle.
Used more in conversational Spanish and the English construction is expressed with to be + past participle.
resultar(le) agradable
to be(turn out to be) pleasant(other adj.)
Wishes expressed elliptically:
very often begin with Que...
The conjunctions of time will take the indicatvie when:
the action or state that they introduce is customary or has already taken place.
Morirse
to die(expresses to idea of dying of natural causes),to be dying, to be moribund(in a dying state; near death, on the verge of extinction or termination, not progressing or advancing; stagnant)
A noun clause is a clause:
that has the same function as a noun, that is, it can be the subject or the object of a sentence.
To express something that occurs involuntarily or unexpectedly, the following structure is used:
se + indirect object pronoun + the verb in the third person singular or plural, which is dependent on the subject
Lo cual, lo que are neuter relative pronouns.
The refer not to a specific person or thing, but rather to a preceding idea.
molestar(le)
to bother(one); to to be bothered by
Some verbs of influence allow an alternate infinitive construction:
dejar, hacer, impedir a, invitar a, mandar, obligar a, permitir, and prohibir.
Z convenir
to be advisable
The equivalent in Spanish of the impersonal subject in English of one, they, people, is:
se + verb in the third person singular
agradar(le)
to like
Z poder ser
to seem possible
celebrar
to be glad
alegrarse de, alegrar(le)
to be glad
detener(se)
to stop
conseguir
to succeed in
sacarse una muela(un diente)
to have a tooth extracted
Some verbs(desayunar, despertar, enfermar, morir)...
are not used reflexively in Spain.
dar(le) lástima
to feel sorry for
tenerle miedo a
to fear
Q. Main Clause: Present Indicative, Present perfect indicative, future indicative, future perfect indicative, commands:
Present subjunctive
Z bastar
to be enough
costar(le) trabajo
to be hard (for one);to have a hard time (+ gerund)
After which prepositions aren't "que" used?
Con, De, En, but it can be used after "a" when it refers to a thing.
pase lo que pase
whatever happens (only used in the third person singular)
cortarse el pelo
to have one's hair cut
resistirse a creer
to refuse to believe
Instead of the passive voice with ser the preferred construction in Spanish is:
se + the verb in the third person singular or plural(Se habl portuqués en el Brasil...Se anunciaron los resultados del examen.)
no sea(fuera) que
lest( so that...not), in case that
quejarse(de)
to complain
Quizá(s) and Tal vez are both equivalents of:
Perhaps. The subjunctive is used after these words when the speaker wishes to indicate doubt, if not the indicative is used.
Expressions of volition:
querer, desear, prohibir, sugerir, preferir, and aconsejar
dormirse
to fall asleep
por si(acaso)(just in case) is followed by:
either the present indicative or the imperfect subjunctive, the latter indicating a more unlikely situation.
empeñarse en
to insist
Ojalá (que) + imperfect subjunctive expresses:
a wish that is impossible or unlikely to happen.
irse
to go away, go off
llevarse
to carry off
Ojalá (que) + pluperfect subjunctive refers to:
a wish that was not fulfilled in the past that denotes regret.
In front of the indirect object pronoun to express an involuntary action:
Se is used.(Se Accidental) (Se me olvidó.)
comerse
to eat up
admirar(le)
to be astonished
When the action in the dependent clause is simultaneous with, or subsequent to, the action in the main clause and when the action in the dependent clause happened before the action of the main clause:
Look for Q.
hacer(le) falta
to need
Adverbial clauses:
modify the verb as adverbs do. Likewise, they answer questions like where?, how?, when?
sobrar(le)
to have in excess, to have more than enough, to have left over
The subjunctive is used in Spanish when the verb in the main clause expresses doubt, disbelief, uncertainty, or denial about the reality of the dependent clause.
Verbs like dudar, no creer, no estar seguro de, negar, resistirse a creer...
Commands are an exception and can be found in the main clause when the subjunctive is used.
Muera el terrorismo!
disgustar(le)
to dislike
importar(le)
to matter (to one); to mind
a no ser que
unless
parecer(le)
to seem(to one)
Z!!! Impersonal Expressions used with the subjunctive:
Look for Z!
Instead of le or les in front of lo, la, los, las:
Se is used. (ex. not le los, but se los)
Conjuctions of time, they will take the subjunctive when they introduce an action or state that has not yet taken place
apenas, en cuanto, hasta que...
The passive voice is expressed with the verb ser + a past participle that agrees in gender and number with the subject + por.
The passive voice, ser + past participle is used less in Spanish than in English.
Cuanto más estudien, más aprenderán
Cuanto is used to modify and adjective or adverb, the first verb in the subjunctive when te speaker is referring to what is hypothetical or future; other wise the indicative is used.
quedar(le) bien(mal, grande, pequeño)
to fit right; to be (un)becoming
como si+ subjunctive
always presents a contrary to fact or hypothetical situation and it takes either the imperfect or the pluperfect subjunctive
extrañar(le)
to be surprised
indignar(le)
to anger
exhortar
to exhort(to urge, advise, or caution earnestly; admonish urgently)
consentir en
to consent
Morir
to die(death occurs in an accident or under violent circumstances)
atreverse (a)
to dare
Aunque akes the subjunctive when it refers to:
an unaccomplished act or hypothesis, or when it indicates that the speaker does not believe the statement to be a fact
Quién is never used with:
the present subjunctive
tocar(le) el turno(una rifa, la lotería)
to be (one's) turn; to win( a raffle, a lottery prize)
alcanzar(le)
to have enough
derretir(se)
to melt
caer(le) bien (etc)
to create a good impression(etc), to like
Z parecer mentira
to seem incredible, impossible
convenir(le)
to suit one's interests, to be good for
poner(lo)(+adj.)
to make (one)(+adj.)(use direct pronoun)
encantar(le)
to delight, to charm, to be delighted with
Por+ adjective or adverb + que
No matter how + adverb is followed by the subjunctive when the speaker does not accept the thought expressed by the verb as a fact.
sorprender(le)
to be surprised
Reflexive Verbs: If the subject performs the act on someone or something else then the reflexive pronoun is not used.
Duh.
Other exceptions where the subjunctive may be found in the main clause of a sentence:
1. wishes expressed elliptically 2. expressions of wish or regret preceded by Ojalá (que)... or Quién..! 3. doubts implied in verbs preceded by Ouizá(s) and Tal vez.
fascinar(le)
to delight, to charm, to fascinate, to be fascinated by
Ojalá (que) + present perfect subjunctive expresses:
a hope about the immediate past.
Sometimes, in conversation, the verb in third person plural is used, having th eimplicit subject las personas. It is equivalent to the passive construction with se.
Dicen que subirán los precios. (Se dice que subirán los premios.)
proponer
to propose
suplicar
to beg, implore
In impersonal constructions:
Se is used. (Se prohíbe fumar.)
ni que+imperfect or pluperfect sunjunctive
is generally used in elliptical exlamatory statements and always precedes an imperfect sunjunctive or pluperfect subjunctive verb.
secar(se)
to dry
Z valer más
to be better
arrepentirse(de)
to repent, be sorry about(regret)
retratarse
to have one's picture taken
acceder a
to agree to
The verb aproveche in this expression: "Que le aproveche." is always in the third-person singular and doesn't agree with the person who is eting, since the subject is the food eaten.
Que le aproveche.
Ojalá (que) + present subjunctive is used when:
the speaker hopes something will happen (or will not happen) in the future.
rogar
to beg
No creer takes the indicative when the speaker is certain about the reality of the dependent verb regardless of someone else's doubt
No creer takes the indicative when the speaker is certain about the reality of the dependent verb regardless of someone else's doubt
Que is more common than quien in speech.
Quien is used after most other prepositions.
Que yo sepa=As far as I know, Que digamos=is used to stress a preceding negative statement and it is difficult to translate since its meaning will vary with the content, Que diga=I mean, in the sense of what I meant to say or that is...
are common idiomatic expressions in the subjunctive.
quedar(le)
to have left
An adjective or relative clause:
has the same function as an adjective, that is, it describes(modifies) a noun.
like ojalá (que), quién + subjunctive may express:
either a wish of impossible or unlikely realization, or regret depending on the tense used
Sometimes verbs of communication convey the idea of volition or preference when they do not merely introduce a fact; they are:
decir, telefonear, escribir
intentar
to try
The following indeterminate expressions take the subjunctive when they refer to a hypothesis or possibility; they take the indicative if the user makes a statement of fact or reality:
cualquiera que, cualquier+ noun + que, comoquiera que, dondequiera que
A number of verbs may acquire a causative meaning when used reflexively.
acting as a cause; producing (often fol. by of): a causative agency; an event causative of war
Gustar construction is used with faltar in the case of...
distances, time, amount...to tell the distance one has to go to arrive at one's destination, the time left before a deadline, the amount or quantity needed to reach a certain limit or goal.
empastarse una muela(un diente)
to have a tooth filled
extender(se)
to extend
extrañar(le)
to be surprised
Gustar construction for faltar can also be used for...
to lack or be missing.
Cueste lo que cueste
no matter how much it may cost(only used in the third person singular or plural
Z valer la pena
to be worthwhile
puedas o no (puedas)
whether you can or not( used in any person)
jactarse(de)
to boast
preocupar(le)
to worry; to be worried by
Estar + past participle describes:
a state or condition of the subject, as well as the result of an action.

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