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Pol 241 quiz 1 and 2


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Gender gap
a distinct difference between male and female opinions on political issues, an example is 10% more woman say they identify with the democratic party
responsible party
a political party that takes clear, distinct stands on the issues and enacts them as policy
Alabama literacy test
a fairly short, yet extremely difficult test that was required for african americans to vote. a 100% was necessary to vote
Deliberative poll
a form of opinion poll that incorporates the principles of deliberative democracy
agenda setting
the theory that the mass-news media have a large influence on audiences by their choice of what stories to consider newsworthy and how much prominence and space to give them.
Political socialization
the process by which individuals acquire political beliefs, attitudes , and opinions
Electoral college
elected representatives of the states whose votes formally elect the president; the number of electors in each state is equal to the total number of its senators and representatives in congress
Hypodermic effects
The "hypodermic needle theory" implied mass media had a direct, immediate and powerful effect on its audiences
Brown v Board
(1954) the Supreme Court rule that separate but equal was unconstitutional
Democratic republic
The united states government is a fusion between 18th century republican ideals and democracy. Focused on indirect representation within the government. sought to prevent tyranny of one and tyranny of the majority
redrawing electoral district lines to give an advantage to a particular party or candidate
representatives who are elected in the states to formally choose the us presdient
Median voter theory
a theory that says if a candidate appeals to the middle voter than they will receive the most votes
Civil rights
guarantees by government of equal citizenship to all social groups
fairness doctrine
the former requirement that television stations present contrasting points of view.
Great Compromise
the compromise between the new jersey and virginia plans put forth by the connecticut delegates at the constitutional convention; called for a lower legislative house based on population size and an upper house based on equal representation of the states
Soft Money
expenditures by political parties on general public education, voter registration, and voter mobilization
Dual Sovereignty
(dual federalism) federalism in which the powers of the states and the national government are neatly separated like the
Social Capital
features of social life-networks, norms, and trust- that enable participants to act together more effectively
retrospective voting
a form of election in which voters look back at the performance of a party in power and cast ballots on the basis of how well it did in office
the redrawing of congressional district lines within a state to ensure roughly equal populations within each district roughly e
De jure segregation
meaning "by law" ; de jure segregation refers to separation of the races required by law
a system in which significant governmental powers are divided between a central government and smaller units, such as states
the delegation of power by the central government to sate or local bodies
unmoved mover
a voter loyal to his or her party no matter what
Affirmative action
programs of private and public institutions favoring minorities and women in hiring and in admissions to colleges and universities in an attempt to compensate for past discrimination
Necessary and proper clause
(elastic clause) article 1 section 8 of the constitution gives congress the authority to make whatever laws are necessary and proper to carry out its enumerated responsibilities.
Proportional representation
the awarding of legislative seats to political parties to reflect the proportion of the popular vote each party receives

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