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Cell Bio - Exam 1


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What is life?
quality that distinguishes a vital functioning being from a dead body.
What is the quality of life?
a live person has brain activity, we consider the characteristics that vanish at death -- no brain waves.
5 Qualities in combination constitution life: very important in living organisms
1. organization
2. energy used & metabolism
3. maintenance of internal constancy
4. reproduction, growth, development
5. irrability, adaptaion, & natural selection
What is Organization?
living matter consists of structures arganized in a particular 3-dimensional relationship often following a pattern of structures, with in structures, within structures.
All life consists of 2 types of cells:
1. unicellular- one single cell
2. multicellular- more than one cell, more advanced
a specialized part of the cell, subunits in the cells of more complex organisms
All life is built on a chemical foundation based on units called:
ELEMENTS: each of which is a unique type of matter
What is the smallest particle of an element that retains the property of that element?
an ATOM.
Living things are composed of complex molecules:
Organic Molecules - Carbon & Hydrogen
The ____ is the smallest unit of life
_____ is the capacity to do work.
An organism must be able to acquire and use energy to build new structures, repair and break down old ones and reproduce
Energy Use & Metabolism
What are 2 ways of obtaining energy?
1. PHOTOSYNTHESIS- plants and some single celled organisms capture energy from sunlight and store it in energy rich sugar molecules
2. Fungai, animals, and most bacteria CONSUME ENERGY RICH MOLECULES contained in the body of other organisms
What is metabolism?
the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in a cell.
2 kinds of metabloic reactions:
1. anabolic- require energy, when reactions build up
2. catabolic- energy producing, when reactions break down
What is the Maintenance of Internal Constancy?
The level of chemicals that make up the environment within a cell must remain with in a constant range, even in the face of a constantly changing outside environment. (ex: maintaining body temperature)
What is the ability to keep conditions constant?
Reproduction, Growth, and Development:
organisms reproduce and make other organisms like themselves, then new organisms grow and develop.
Why is reproduction essential?
for a population of organisms to survive from one generation to the next
________ is the tendency to respond immediately to stimuli and can be essential for survival.
What is Adaptation?
modifications that make organisms suited for their way of life.
_________ is enhanced survival and reproductive success of certain individuals from a population based on inherited characteristics.
Natural selection
What is a virus?
"A" cellular--obligate intracellular parasites
Plants, Animals, Protista, Fungai and Monera all belong to what division?
Eucaryotic Cells:
have plasma membrance, contain organelles, more complex, bigger (humans)
All living things consist of _______: material that makes up space, and is made up of elements
What are the 3 sub-atomic particles?
Electrons(-), protrons(+), and neutrons(no charge)
2 or more atoms joined together
2 atoms that share a pair of electrons (single, double or triple)
Covalent Bonds
Ionic Bonds

atom completes outershell by either adding or giving electrons.
Hydrogen Bonding(most important and most common)
weak bonds, formed by the attraction of positively charged hydrogen atoms in a polar molecule to a negatively charged atom.
is essential for life, one of the most important things needed to survive; very simple
What is specific heat?
the amount of heat necessary to raise 1gram of material 1degree C (measured in calories)
"water loving"
"water hating"
What is pH?
it is based on log rythm (base 10) of one molar hydrogen ion concentration--10 folds = 1 pH level.

pH=log10 1/[H+]= -1log [H+]
What are Macromolecules?
molecules needed for life. (proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, DNA/RNA)
What are compounds made up of?
Compounds that contain CARBON are called...
organic compounds
A chain of carbons is called...
Carbon Skeleton
A pair of substances--one being an acid, and one being a base(acid/base pair):
What are the 4 Functional Groups?
hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, and amino acids
A ______ is a large chain joined together to form building blocks (monomers).
What is the process of Dehydration Synthesis?
to remove water and put it back in, repeating.
What is it called when you add H2O to a polymer?

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