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us history # 13


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michael harrington
wrote "The Other America" to expose US poverty
martin luther king jr.
Born in Atlanta in 1929. Son of a minister. Attended Morehouse College and recieved a doctor's degree in theology from Boston University. Started the black civil rights movement. Also gave the "I Have A Dream" speech
an independent agency of the United States government responsible for aviation and spaceflight
national organization for women
1) founded in 1966 2) Betty Friedan 3) Why? To pressure the gov't on behalf of women! 3) Official birth of new feminism
geneva conference
A conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Vietnam.
tet offensive
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
central intelligence agency
an agency created after World War 2 to coordinate American intelligence activities abroad, conspiracy, and meddling as well.
camp david
Place where there were meetings to discuss land for peace. The first was in 1979 between Israel and Egypt and the other was in 2000 between Israel and the PNA
southern christian leadership conference
An organization founded by MLK Jr., to direct the crusade against segregation. Its weapon was passive resistance that stressed nonviolence and love, and its tactic direct, though peaceful, confrontation.
military industrial complex
-Prez Eisenhower's farewell address includes a warning, watch out for "defense" corporations, if too powerful, lose control of govt. and foreign policy, arms race is big $$ ( opposed to legs?)
"South East Asia Treaty Organization" This was the US making treaties with other countries in order to "try to win hearts and mind." popularity contest between the Soviet and the US: the two superpowers. -our fight in Vietnam. the spanish american war was the first major departure in americas isolationist foreign policy. the aftermath of ww1: we didn't want to get involved so we didn't join the league of nations.
free speech movement
led by Mario Savio it protested on behalf of students rights. It spread to colleges throughought the country discussing unpopular faculty tenure decisions, dress codes, dormitory regulations, and appearances by Johnson administration officials.
james meredith
He was a civil rights advocate who spurred a riot at the University of Mississippi. The riot was caused by angry whites who did not want Meredith to register at the university. The result was forced government action, showing that segregation was no longer government policy.
students for a democratic society
Founded in 1962, the SDS was a popular college student organization that protested shortcomings in American life, notably racial injustice and the Vietnam War. It led thousands of campus protests before it split apart at the end of the 1960s.
student nonviolent coordinating committee
Involved in the American Civil Rights Movement formed by students whose purpose was coordinate a nonviolent attack on segregation and other forms of racism.
sit ins
Sit-ins were first widely employed by Mahatma Gandhi in Indian independence movement and were later expanded on by Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and others during the American Civil Rights Movement. In the 1960s, students used this method of protest during the student movements, such as the protests in Germany. Sit-ins were an integral part of the non-violent strategy of civil disobedience that ultimately ended racial segregation in the United States. The Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR) and the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) conducted sit-ins as early as the 1940s. Ernest Calloway refers to Bernice Fisher as "godmother of the restaurant 'sit-in' technique."[1] Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO) labor delegates had a brief, spontaneous lunch counter sit-in in 1947 during their Columbus, Ohio convention.
iron curtain
Churchill's term for separation between communism and capitalism in Europe
bays of pigs invasion
The 1961________(aka Playa Girón), was an unsuccessful attempted invasion by armed Cuban exiles in southwest Cuba, planned and funded by the United States, in an attempt to overthrow the government of Fidel Castro, shortly after John F. Kennedy assumed the presidency in the U.S. This action accelerated a rapid deterioration in Cuban-American relations, which was further worsened by the Cuban Missile Crisis the following year.
betty freidan
wrote Feminine Mystique on women's rights movement; degree in psychology; found NOW
project apollo
the final stage of the US program to reach the moon
miranda v. arizona
a landmark 5-4 decision of the United States Supreme Court which was argued February 28-March 1, 1966 and decided June 13, 1966. The Court held that criminal suspects must be informed of their right to consult with an attorney and of their right against self-incrimination prior to questioning by police. The Miranda warning required by the Supreme Court in this case is an example of a prophylactic rule formulated by the judiciary in order to protect a constitutional right.
environmental protection agency
an agency of teh federal government created in 1970 and charged with administering all the governments environmental legislation. It also administers policies dearling with toxic wastes.
berlin wall
a wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
voting rights act
This act, passed in 1965, outlawed literacy tests and sent federal voter registrars into several Southern states. This act did not end discrimination and oppression overnight, but it helped blacks get a foothold on change.
cuban missile crisis
In October 1962, the United States and the Soviet Union came close to nuclear war when President Kennedy insisted that Nikita Khrushchev remove the 42 missiles he had secretly deployed in Cuba. The Soviets eventually did so, nuclear war was averted, and the crisisended.
gulf of tonkin resolution
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed on August 7, 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia.
richard nixon
President of the United States from 1969 to 1974 who followed a foreign policy marked by détente with the Soviet Union and by the opening of diplomatic relations with China. In the face of likely impeachment for the Watergate scandal, he resigned.
The world's first space satellite. This meant the Soviet Union had a missile powerful enough to reach the US.
national security act
1947; enacted to back up the Truman Doctrine; established the National Security Council to advise the president, established the Central Intelligence Agency to gather information abroad and engage in covert activities in support of the nation's security, began the processes of transforming the old War and Navy Depts into the Department of Defense, and combined the leadership of the army,navy, and air force under the Joint Chiefs of Staff; showed Truman's and Americans' fears of communist invasion after WWII
brown v. board of education
1954 This case tested the idea of "separate but equal" in education
montgomery bus boycott
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
congress of racial quality
interracial organization formed to fight discrimination
march on washington
held in 1963 to show support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress. Martin Luther King gave his famous "I have a dream..." speech. 250,000 people attended the rally
john f. kennedy
US President 1960-1963
fidel castro
Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)
alliance for progress
1961 a program in which the United States tried to help Latin American countries overcome poverty and other problems
gideon v. wainwright
a landmark case in United States Supreme Court history. In the case, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that state courts are required under the Sixth Amendment of the Constitution to provide counsel in criminal cases for defendants unable to afford their own attorneys.
port huron statement
1962; adopted by 60 students determined not to be a "silent generation," it was a broad critique of American society and called for more genuine human relationships; proclaimed a "new left" and formed the "Students for a Democratic Society" envisioning a nonviolent youth movement transforming the US into a "participatory democracy" as an end to materialism, militarism, and racism; demonstrated the feelings of a disillusioned generation (JFK's death, police brutality) that made them work for change in the second half of the 20th century
black panthers
a militant Black political party founded in 1965 to end political dominance by Whites
a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States
lyndon johnson
36th President of the United States
roe v. wade
'73 Supreme ct decision that stuck down 46 state laws restricting women's access to abortion (highlighted divisions within women's mvmt
freedom rides
1961 designed to test whether southern states would obey Supreme Court rulings for African American rights
domino theory
1954; Eisenhower warned that if Vietnam became communist, all of Asia woudl follow; caused the foration of the SouthEastern Asia Treaty Organization patterned on NATO and refused to sign the Geneva Peace Accords
great society
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
baghdad pact
1955 - A treaty supported by the West that united the defenses of Iraq, Turkey, Pakistan, and Iran, to counter the threat of the expansion of the Soviet Union.
eisenhower doctrine
The doctrine stated that the United States would use armed forces upon request in response to imminent or actual aggression to the United States. Furthermore, countries that took stances opposed to Communism would be given aid in various forms.
peace corps
volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of communism by getting rid of poverty
baker v. carr
case that est. one man one vote. this decision created guidelines for drawing up congresional districts and guaranteed a more equitable system of representation to the citizens of each state
national defense education act
Passed in response to Sputnik, it provided an oppurtunity and stimulus for college education for many Americans. It allocated funds for upgrading funds in the sciences, foreign language, guidance services, and teaching innovation.
civil rights act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
department of housing and urban development
1965 the United States federal department that administers federal programs dealing with better housing and urban renewal

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