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MH 21 and 22


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extending national power over other lands, peaked in the late 1800's
Reasons for Imperialism
Industry needed raw materials & new markets, Political - Gain advantage over rival nations. National prestige, Social Darwinism & racism, and Moral responsibility to "civilize" other races - "white man's burden" ,"White Man's Burden"
French Indochina
Vietnam, Laoes, and Cambodia were controlled by France and named French Indochina
Emilio Aguinaldo
led a revolt that the US colonized the Philippines
Direct Rule
local rulers were replaced by Westerners. This allowed more control by the ruling country
Indirect Rule
local rulers kept authority & status. This was easier & cost less, but became difficult if natives resisted colonization
Muhammad Ali
led Egypt to independence from the Ottoman Turks
Suez Canal
built by France to connect the Mediterranean & Red Seas
The Mahdi
"the guided one" who is believed to be the Messiah of Islam
Charles Gordon
led Christians & English citizens in the Sudan to safety
his army, & hundreds of African Christians were destroyed at this place
Lord Kitchener
retook the Sudan & avenge Gordon. he destroyed the Muslim army at the Battle of Omdurman
Battle of Omdurman
Muslim army was destroyed
King Leopold II
of Belgium colonized the Congo
Belgian Congo
Dutch settlers
Cecil Rhodes
the English governor of South Africa, incited a war w/ the Boers over control of Transvaal & the Orange Free State
Guerilla warfare
used by Boer that frustrated the English
British East India Company
privately owned, governed India
British officers & native soldiers
Sepoy Mutiny
Sepoys outnumbered the British but religious differences between Hindus & Muslims kept native Indians from working together
indians slaughtered 200 British civilians
Queen Victoria, Empress of India
appointed a viceroy (governor) under her control to administer India directly
Indian National Congress
upper class of Indians
Mohandas Gandhi
began a movement for Indian independence thru non-violent resistance
Non-violent resistance
Mohandas Gandhi began a movement for Indian independence thru this
Toussaint Louverture
haiti became the 1st independent state after a slave revolt led by
Miguel Hidalgo
led revolutions throughout South America
Jose de San Martin and Simon Bolivar
led revolutions throughout South America
Monroe Doctrine
stated the Americas were closed to further European colonization
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
ruled Mexico, His oppression led to a revolt in Texas
Panama Canal
the U.S. claimed the land needed to build this
Opium War
Several Chinese ships were destroyed, which led to the start of this war
Treaty of Nanjing
The British navy defeated China & the Qing emperor was forced to sign this
Hong Kong
started an uprising known as the Tai Ping Rebellion
Tai Ping Rebellion
enacted reforms based on Western ideas that were unpopular
Ci Xi
Tai Ping's aunt ordered his arrest, took control of the government, & ended the reforms
Open Door Policy
which would give all nations equal access to Chinese markets
Boxer Rebellion
killed thousands before being put down by armies from the U.S., Japan, & Europe
Henry Pu Yi
was exiled to Japan & Yuan established a military dictatorship to rule China
Meiji Restoration and Constitution
enlightened rule
an invasion launched by the Japanese
Port Arthur
Japan launched a surprise naval attack on the Russian fleet at this place

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