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US History Chapter 2

Terms

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John Winthrop
Wrote "City on a HIll" and lead the founding of Jamestown.
Jacque Cartier
Explored St. Lawrence River, establishing first settlements in Quebec.
Samuel de Champlain
Royal geographer, hired to help colonize America. Established a colony in Nova Scotia.
Joint-Stock Companies
A system for colonization where many investors buy a ship and supplies to establish a settlement in America
Anglican Church
Official church of England, formed when Henry VIII was refused a divorce by the Catholic Church
Giovanni da Verrazano
Explored and mapped the Eastern Coastland of America, trying to find the Northwest Passage to Asia for France.
Conquistadors
Spanish conquerors of South America and Mexico.
Northwest Passage
A hypothetical route around the Northwest of North America, leading to Asia.
Enclosure Movement
Social movement where rich farmers began to enclose their land to raise sheep and sell wool. Led to the poor moving to cities.
Roger Williams
Young minister who founded Providence, Rhode Island
Jamestown
First permanent English colony in the New World.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
The first Puritan colony, founded as the "City on a Hill".
Francisco Pizarro
Explored the western coastline of South America, encountering, and later conquering, the Incaans.
Malinche
Mistress to Cortes who traveled with him and his men, aiding in his conquest of Mexico.
Lord Baltimore
Founded Marylans as a Catholic refuge in the New World.
Hernan Cortes
Spanish conquistador who conquered the Aztecs by allowing them to think of the Spaniards as deities
John Rolfe
Key ambassador to Powhatans, married Pocahontas.
Maryland Toleration Act
Freedom of worship for all Christians in Maryland, established after friction between protestants and catholics
"City on a Hill"
A proposed perfect city of god in the new world.
Anne Hutchinson
Devout Puritan who came to be exiled from the church for her dissenting opinions of certain ministers.
Water Raleigh / Roanoke
A lost colony, the settlers completely disappeared. Second attempt founded North Carolina
Jeronimo de Aguilar
Friar, captured by Mayans, learned their language, and assisted with Spanish conquest of the Mayans.
House of Burgesses
First legislative assembly of the new world, in charge of governing Jamestown.
Restoration
The reinstatement of the monarchy system in England.
John Smith
Leader of Jamestown, kickstarted colony's life. Greatly contributed to Jamestown's success
Puritans
Fundamentalist Christians who stressed the value of community. Theocracy.
John Calvin
Protestant reformer who sought to establish a new Calvinist church.
Louis Joliet & Jacque Marquette
Discovered the Mississippi in 1673.
Powhatan Confederacy
The organization of Powhatan Tribes led by Chief Powhatan. Jamestown colonists traded with these natives.
Encomienda System
In this system, Spaniards were rewarded with control over a few Native American villages, earning taxes.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
The first official constitution in the new world. Established Connecticut as a Puritan state where Adult men could vote for the leaders of the church.
Council of the Indies
Spanish council in charge of the American colonies who advised the king.
Headright System
Colonist in Jamestown pays fees for travel to America in exchange for 7 years of labor
Rene-Robert Cavelier de la Salle
Explored Mississippi river to its end in the Gulf of Mexico
Starving Time
Period of starving and cannibalism in Jamestown after John Smith left the colony
Protestant Reformation
The effort to reform the Catholic Church away from corruption
Martin Luther
The first church reformist, who posted his 95 theses on the door of a Catholic church.
Proprietary Colony
A colony where the king grants land to an individual to establish a colony.
Great Migration
The mass migration of the poor from the poor living conditions in England to the spacious forests of North America
Virginia Company
Joint-stock company which founded Jamestown.

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