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AP US History (final exams 1)

Terms

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Quakers
religious group who believed in equality and the inner spirit; exercising the spirit
Holy Experiment
the Quakers turn Pennsylvania into this
Cambridge Agreement
shareholder meetings in Massachusetts, under King Charles I
Roger Williams
dissenter, who believed in religious toleration and didn't agree with the idea that everybody had to go to church; he also believed in the state and church to be together, and went to Rhode Island 'Providence', to set up a colony with religious toleration
Samson Occom
first Native American person to ever publish documents and pamphlets in English (key Native American figure during Great Awakening)
treaty of Tordesillas
treaty giving Portugal a little more land in the New World (now Brazil)
Enlightenment
a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions
George Washington
this man goes to a fort in Ohio and asks the French to leave, but his men fire at them and it starts the 7 Year's War
Headright system
name given to the system which was an incentive for the people of the colonies to pay for indentured servants to come from England, for along with the labor would come about 50 acres of land
Stono Rebellion
this rebellion took place in S Carolina, where slaves banded together and killed whites; goal was to make it to Florida
John Smith
this man takes over the colony of Jamestown, saved/held colony together; he became friends with the Powhatan tribe
Cartier
this French man explores the St Lawrence River (Canada)
George Whitefield
credited with starting the Great Awakening, also a leader of the "New Lights"
Delaware
this city was taken over by Pennsylvania for their seaport for a while, also known as "New Sweden"
Leif Ericson
key viking, explored and set up colonies in Newfoundland (colonies failed, explorations ended around 11th century)
Royal Colony
name given to a colony which is controlled by the King, who will appoint the governor and run it (Ex. Virginia)
Jamestown
one of the first colonies, very successful, but problems with malaria, disinteriation, wasted time on finding gold and didn't like to work
Vasco da Gama
first to sail all the way around Africa, lands in India
vikings
travelled around Greenland, Iceland, Newfoundland, perhaps N. America (985~)
Colonial Period
name given to a period of time from 1607 - 1776
adventure (grew up as peasants, exciting), chance for riches (grew up poor)
sailors enlisted for these reasons
James Oglethorpe
this man sets up the colony of Georgia as a haven for debtors, and bans slavery there
Edwin Sandy
first governor of Virginia, elected by Virginia company of London
Maryland Toleration Act
freedom of religion, as long as you're Christian, passed in the southern colonies
Ponce de Leon
this man searches for the Fountain of Youth, ultimately explores Florida (major European exploration of the New World)
Mid-Atlantic Colonies
started in the 1660's, by King Charles II as a part of the Restoration Colonies; very diverse
Old Lights
traditionalists or the leaders of Puritan beliefs during the Great Awakening
mestizos
1/2 Spanish blood, 1/2 Indian blood (were dramatically lower in the social system)
Iroquois Confederation
they sided with the English, unlike other tribes who went with the French (key: Native tribes were able to unify with others)
Pizzaro
this man conquers the Incas in South America, makes it the second base for Spain
Joint stock companies
these were private companies developed to gather the savings from the middle class to support finance colonies. Ex. London Company and Plymouth Company
geographic revolution
this starts, after Columbus discovers the "New World", which changes the mindset of everybody
challenge Spain, land, raw materials, send excess population
reasons for England colonizing in North America
King Ferdinand, Queen Isabella
they accept Columbus' proposal to sail west to find Asia, reasoning that whatever he finds will belong to Spain
Dias
first to go past equator; makes it around the tip of Africa, "Cape of Good Hope"
frontier
the poor tended to live in this region, away from tidewater
landowners
wealthiest group of people in the southern colonies
John Winthrop
created the New England Way, and "City Upon a Hill"
Peter Zenger case
was sued for writing bad things about the NY government, but in this case was ruled not guilty (big step forward for free speech/press)
colonial agents
England didn't allow representation for the colonies, so instead they sent these people to argue points
Roanoke
failed colony (now, Virginia), known as the "Lost Colony"
Richard Hakluyt
writer of adventure stories to convince people to go to America
Catholic Church
very close to the government, sent hundreds of priests into the New World with a high success rate
New Lights
evangelists or the leaders of the revivalist beliefs during the Great Awakening.
seaports
major towns in New England were near these
vice roys
#3 in Spanish hierarchy, they were the King's representatives in the New World - had a fair amount of autocracy so the King didn't trust them as much
Prince Henry the Navigator
his goals were to sail around Africa
Spanish Armada
Spain vs England in a naval battle, England wins - key fact: England is rising, Spain is declining
Treaty of Paris
treaty signed after the French and Indian war, France lost everything, England gained everything (including New Orleans and Florida)
Lower Southern Colonies
rice was a major crop, included Southern North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia; big gap between rich and poor
line of demarcation
the line that divides Spanish land from Portuguese land in the New World, drawn by the Pope, giving Spain everything and Portugal nearly nothing
Spain, France, England
these three countries compete for global power
War of Jenkin's Ear
British captain had this body part cut off by spanish; created war in caribbean and GA
assembly
all colonies were allowed to have this, and the governor usually owed his money to it
Albany Plan of Union
A proposal for increased unity and cooperation among the colonies, led by Ben Franklin, but was never passed
Education Act
a law stating that everyone (children) must get education to some degree, in order to be able to read bibles and hymns (part of the Puritan work ethic)
Quakers
these people opposed slavery, and up until the Civil War, they helped slaves
Philadelphia
this city was a master plan, grid; religious toleration and was very diverse
penninsulares
pure blood Spanish people born in Spain
Battle for Quebec
this battle, Wolfe vs Montealm, was the last battle which ended the French and Indian War
livestock, sugar, fruits, spices and disease
these things were sent by Europe, Africa, Asia to the New World during the Columbian Exchange
House of Burgesses
an assembly in Virginia, allowing people to vote for governor, brought them closer to democracy
Manifest Destiny
notion that America's goal is to spread coast to coast - it is a duty from God
Cortez
this man and the conquistadors of Spain conquered the Aztecs, and makes Mexico a base for Spain
Cornado
this man searches for the 7 cities of gold, first to see the Grand Canyon, explores Kansas and Arizona
William Pitt
this prime minister of England will do/spend anything in order to win the 7 Year's War
King
in Spain, this man was at the top of the hierarchy
Braddock
this man led an English force during the 7 Year's War, but was wiped out
disease
this weakened the Native Americans, and was ultimately the reason why they had to give in to the Spanish for many things, such as being converted to Catholicism
Judge Sewall
this judge wrote 'The Selling of Joseph', a pamphlet opposing slavery
Puritans
sought religious freedom from the Church of England (Anglicans) and formed the New England Colonies, and the Massachusetts Bay Company
church
this was the center of the community in the New England colonies
Puritan work ethic
individual enterprise, the self made man, that success is the sign of salvation
tidewater
region of the upper south where the rich lived
Pueblo Revolt
revolt in New Mexico led by Pope, Native Americans vs Spanish, in 1680 (took 12 years to subdue), fought over religious tolerance (Natives get what they wanted)
Upper Southern Colonies
tobacco was key, these colonies included Maryland, Virginia, Northern North Carolina; also known as the "Chesapeake" colonies
expansion
colonies Jamestown and Virginia did this, taking the Natives' land
John Cabot
this man from England, explores the east coast of North America
2
number of representatives from each town in the Puritan community, who will determine the town's vote (had to be a white landowner)
Salem Witch Trials
the first rebellion where women had control; poor accusing rich, women/girls accusing others
indentured servants
these people were not used as much, because of better economic conditions in England, and the colonies started relying on slavery
Middle Colonies
Penn, NY, these colonies had the biggest variety of people, and also known as the "breadbasket of colonies"
Queen Elizabeth
this queen did not like Spain taking over North America (felt Spain becoming a bigger global power than England)
Lower South
this region included mostly Anglicans, their constitution gave power to aristocracy and was conservative, rice plantations all along the coast which needed slavery
Ben Franklin
"Join or Die"
Jonathan Edwards
"sinners in the hands of an angry God"
Verrazano
this French man is known for exploring the east coast of North America
Anne Hutchinson
believed that the inner spirit is different from the surface, John Winthrop labeled her as an Antinomian, and was banished
creoles
pure blood Spanish born in the New World
City Upon a Hill
written by John Winthrop, it is about New England being the top of the world, looking down on everybody and everybody looking up at them
Councel of Indies
#2 in Spanish hierarchy, they were the King's advisers for the New World
Champlain
this French man sets up a colony in Quebec (major)
South
region which followed the Headright system, and large tobacco plantations
Middle Passage
the route in between the western ports of Africa to the Caribbean and southern U.S. that carried the slave trade
New England Confederation
1643, the colonies banded together to fight the Natives (key: unification)
Magellan
first man to circumnavigate the world, died in the Phillipines
Virginia company of London
a private company in the New World, authorized by the King to colonize, didn't fail
John Rolfe
started tobacco, cash crop
La Salle
this French man explored from St Lawrence to the Mississippi
Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria
1492, these three ships were sailed by Columbus across the sea
Pequot War
1637, Pequot Tribe vs colonists; colonists win and wiped the tribe out
Christopher Columbus
this man lands in the Bahama Islands, and thinks he is in the Indies
Chesapeake colonies
Northern South colonies, carved out of Virginia, was planned to be a haven for Catholics but Protestants dominated
New England
this region was the most educated (early 1700s)
Virginia company of Plymouth
a private company in the new World, authorized by the King to colonize, did fail
Onate
this man sets up a colony in New Mexico
town meetings
gatherings of local citizens to discuss and vote on important issues (key to democracy)
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
in a way, the first written constitution, establishing Connecticut as a self-rule entity, and described the government, settings its structure and power
Balboa
first to cross the Pacific ocean, goes to Panama
New England Way
model of a Christian charity, model of how New England is going to be governed
merchants
wealthiest group of people in the upper colonies
Jamestown
Powhatan Indians attack this colony, King James angry that the comany allowed this to happen
The Selling of Joseph
this pamphlet was written by Judge Sewall, which connected the Bible with colonial slavery
bureaucratic
type of government in Spain (1500s), with lots of rules and regulations, "red tape" and is very hierarchical
Press Gangs
a detachment empowered to force civilians to serve in the army or navy
halfway covenant
notion that as long as you had a connection with a Puritan, you could become baptized; needed more conversions because Puritans were becoming diluted
King Phillip's War
1675, Metacom, known as King Phillip, started a war with the colonists; killed, but creates a bigger distrust between the Natives and the colonists
Great Awakening
religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established
economienda
a big plot of land given to Spanish explorers, usually including Indian labor
Proprietary Colony
name given to colonies which the owner (proprietor) appointed the governor
Glorious Revolution
this revolution was in New England, where the people rebelled against the Royal Governor Andros, who flees
Portugal
first European country to explore
Power of the Purse
colonists could withhold the governor's salary using this idea, unless he yielded to their wishes
nuts, vegetables, fruit
some goods sent by the New World to Europe, Africa, Asia during the Columbian Exchange
spice trade route
importance of finding a route around Africa, and into India
Columbian Exchange
diffusion of goods and culture between the New World and Europe
Georgia
set up by James Oglethorpe, was the last colony to be found
Leisler's Rebellion
after the Glorious Revolution, Leisler takes over the government for a while, but was a bad person and his people rebel and kill him
De Soto
this man discovers the Mississippi River
true
everybody was close to each other in a Puritan community
Bacon's Rebellion
a rebellion in which frontiersmen vs elite, when Gov. Berkley refused to offer protection to the frontiersmen; led by Nathaniel Bacon
indentured servants
servants whose trip to America was paid for, but in return had to work for them for a number of years before being released
rise of slavery
this happened, because they were cheaper, could handle hard labor and you didn't have to free them
French and Indian War
a war fought between France and England, and allied Indians, from 1754 to 1763; resulted in France's expulsion from New World, also known as the 7 Year's War
Ben Franklin
key figure in the Enlightenment, who created the American Philosophical Society
South
this part of America had the most Anglican population, there were more plantations than cities, plantation owners dominated politics and society
Stono Rebellion
the results of this rebellion caused harsher treatment of slaves, and ultimately scared white southerners, who passed slave codes so it would be harder for them to band together
gold, spices, trade, converting heathens, glory
Europeans explored for these reasons

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