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FINAL Review - Amanda Part 1, Chapter 12

Terms

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Moderate Republicans
group that viewed Reconstruction as a practical matter of restoring states into the Union and keeping the former Confederates out of government
black codes
laws enacted in many southern states that discriminated against African Americans
Reconstruction act of 1867
This Act was passed by Congress which was vetoed by President Johnson. This Act invalidated the state govn'ts formed under the Lincoln & Johnson plans and all the legal decisions made by those govn'ts.
Reconstruction
Period following the Civil War during which the U.S. government worked to rebuild the former Confederate states and reunite the nation
Pardons
to grant freedom from punishment to a criminal or anyone who has disobeyed the law.
Wade Davis Bill
bill passed by congress and vetoed by president lincoln that would have given congress control of reconstruction
Charles Sumner
Radical Republican against the slave power who insults Andrew Butler and subsequently gets caned by Preston Brooks
Panic of 1873
Four year economic depression caused by overspeculation on railroads and western lands, and worsened by Grant's poor fiscal response (refusing to coin silver
Tenure of Office Act
Makes it illegal for president to replace officers who have been confirmed by Congress without Congressional approval
40 Acres and a Mule
Blacks were given 40 acres and a mule to move west
hard money
Political contributions given to a party, candidate, or interest group that are limited in amount and fully disclosed.
Edwin Stanton
an American lawyer, politician, United States Attorney General in 1860-61 and Secretary of War through most of the American Civil War and Reconstruction era.
greenbacks
Name for Union paper money not backed by gold or silver. Value would fluctuate depending on status of the war (plural)
Scalawags
scoundrel; given by former Confederates to those southerners who supported the shift in power to Congress and the army in the South during Reconstruction
Whiskey Ring Scandal
Biggest scam and government officials got caught stealing money.
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
diversification
spreading of risk into several categories of investing: e.g., stocks, bonds, mutual funds, real estate, money markets. At the corporate level, entering into different business areas, as a conglomerate does
Amnesty Act
passed in 1872
Ten Percent Plan
Lincoln's plan that allowed a Southern state to form its own government afetr ten percent of its voters swore an oath of loyalty to the United States
Civil Rights Act of 1866
This act was the first major act passed over a presidential veto. This Act made blacks US citizens with the same civil rights as others & gave fed govn't the right to intervene in the states to ensure black rights in court.
Radical Republicans
These were a small group of people in 1865 who supported black suffrage. They were led by Senator Charles Sumner and Congressman Thaddeus Stevens. They supported the abolition of slavery and a demanding reconstruction policy during the war and after.
Credit Moblier
name of company involved in stealing of railroad money
easy money
income obtained with a minimum of effort
Martial Law
the law temporarity imposed upon an area by state or national military forces when civil authority has broken down
14th Amendment
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
Pocket Veto
A veto exercised by the president oafter congress has adjourned; if the president takes no action for ten dys, the bill does not become law and is not returend to Congress for a possible override
With Malice Towards None and Charity Towards All..
Lincolns speech
Andrew Johnson
17th President of the US. Democrat and a slave-owner who took office after Lincoln was assassinated. He was a Southern politician who opposed secession. Few believed he would actually become President; it was a surprise to the population. Poor boy with little education who was talented at public speaking
Enforcement Acts
Three acts passed by Congress allowing the government to use military force to stop violence against southern African Americans.
impeachment
a formal document charging a public official with misconduct in office
Carpetbagger
were Northerners who moved to the South during Reconstruction between 1865 and 1877. They formed a coalition with Freedmen (freed slaves), and Scalawags (Southern whites who supported the Reconstruction) in the Republican Party, which in turn controlled ex-Confederate states for varying periods, 1867-1877.
Suffrage
the legal right to vote extended to African Americans by the Fifteenth amendment, to women by the Nineteenth amendment, and to people over the age of 18 by the twenty-sixth amendment.
tenant farming
farmers rented thier land from the landowner and were allowed to grow whatever they wanted
Klu Klux Klan
A secret organization that used terrorist tactics in an attempt to restore white supremecy in the South after the Civil War.
Freedman's Bureau
The bureau's focus was to provide food, medical care, administer justice, manage abandoned and confiscated property, regulate labor, and establish schools.
share cropping
african americans and poor whites would work on a land owned by another in return for small pay or some crops
Constitutional Amendments
propsals to change the constitution, enacted by supermajoruty of legislature or through state referendum
Hiram Revels
African American minister who was elected to serve in the Senate; one of the first blacks to serve in the Senate
Blanche Bruce
African American who was elected to serve in the Senate; the first black to serve full term in Senate
15th Amendment
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude

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