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Articles of Confederation to the War of 1812

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Use of the spoils system
When the democrats rose to power in the white house, they replaced most of hte people in offices with their own people (the common man). These people were illierate and incompetent. This system of rewarding political supporters with jobs in the government is called the spoils system.
Sherman's march
(1864) WE will destroy you and rebuild you in our view -TOTAL WAR! Shows total warfare by capturing and burning Georgia and the Carolinas. Destroy supplies destined for the confederate army and to weaken the morale of the men at the front by waging war on their homes.
Zachary Taylor's Presidency
(1849) Zachary Taylor won the election of 1848 and attempted to ignore the slave issue.
Franklin Pierce's Presidency
(1853-1857) democrat. Supported the finality of everything, including the compromise of 1850 and the fugitive slave law. Won the election of 1852- ended the whig party
Trail of Tears
U.S. Army forcibly moved 15,000 Cherokees from their ancestral homelands in South eastern U.S. and marched them to Indian territory (present day Oklahoma)
The Alamo and the Republic of Texas
Texas declared its independence in 1836. General Houston forced Santana Anna to sign a treaty in 1836 after Houson captured Santa Anna in the Battle of San Jacinto. The texans wanted to become a state in the U.S. but the northerners did not want them because of the issue of slavery. Admitting Texas would mean one more slave state.
Panic of 1857
broke out due to California gold inflating the currency and over-speculation in land and railroads. North was the hardest hit, while the South with its cotton continued to flourish
Second Bank of the United States
Andrew Jackson despied the Bank of the United States and felt it was very monopolistic. The Bank of the United States was a private institution, accountable not to the people, but to its elite circle of investors. The bank minted gold and silver coins.
Sutter's gold in California
gold was discovered in California. The rush of ppl in search for gold in California brought much violence and disease that the gov. of California couldnt handle. Needing protection, the Californias drafted their own cosntitution excluding slavery. Southerners objected because it would upset the balance of free and slave states in the senate.
Lincoln-Douglas Debate
key issue was whether the people of a territory could prohibit slavery in the light of the Dred Scott decision. Lincoln asked douglas, "What if the ppl of a territory should vote down slavery?" The Supreme court in the dred scott decision had decreed that the people could not. Douglas' reply to him became known as the free prt doctrine
54'50 or fight
Spain, Russia, British and U.S.. Spain dropped out with the Florida Treaty of 1819 and Russia dropped out with the treaty of 1825 and 1825. Britain controlled north of the Columbia river. By 1846, about 5,000 Americans settled south of the Columbia River. The British had a lesser population but did not want to give up Columbia river. By 1846, about 5,000 Americans settled south of the Columbia river. The British had a lesser population but did not want to give up Columbia River. 54'40 or fight- we want this land or we'll go to war with Britain!
Bleeding Kansas
People were lying and saying that they were from Kansas so that they could get more votes to have Kansas be a slave state. This led to voilence.
Vicksburg
Union Victory. Mississiippi gain. 1863
Caning of Charles Sumner
(1856) Abolitionist Charles Sumner made an intense speech condemning pro slavery men but also insulting South Carolina and State represenative Preston Brooks. Brooks beat sumners with a cane to unconsciousness. Speech was applauded in the N but angering the S. Shows how violent and impassioned northerners and southerners were for their cause.
Southern strengths and weaknesses
had the advantage of fighting defensively on its own land and it did not have to win in order to preserve the confederacy. Morale advantage. Good generals, solders know how to fight. Not a lot of factories in the south, lack of supplies, not a lot of ppl, economic states were bad
Manifest Destiny
God had "manifestly" destined the American people to spread their democratic institutions over the entire continent and over South Americas as well. Strongly supported by democrats
John Brown's raid at Harpers' Ferry
Scheme was to invade the South secretly with a handful of followers, call upon the slaves to rise, give the slaves weapons, and establish a black free state as a sanctuary. Because many of his supporters failed to show up, he was caught and sent to death by hanging. Known as 'martyr' for the abolitionist cause.
Freeport Doctrine
no matter how the Supreme Court ruled, slavery would stay down if the people voted it down
Northern strengths and weaknesses
held 3/4 of the nation's wealth, 3/4 of the railroad system. Twice as large of a population of the south (more immigrants). Non-skilled generals and armies.
James Buchanan's Presidency
(1857-186) democrat. It is a good thing Republicans did not win because an election of a Republican president would mean war, forcing south to succeed. Small victory for Republicans because they were only two years old.
The Corrupt Bargain
4 main "Republican" candidates in the election of 1824: Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, William Crawford, and Henry Clay. No candidate won the majority of electoral votes. Clay convinced the house to elect John Quincy Adams as PResident. Adams agreed to make Clay the Secretary of State for getting him into office. People felt that there was a "corrupt bargain" because Andrew Jackson had the popular vote
Election of Abraham Lincoln
won the election of 1860 but did not win the popular vote. South Carolina was happy at the outcome of the election because now it had a reason to secede.
Compromise of 1850
California was admitted as a free state and the territories of New MExico and Utah were open to slavery on the basis of popular sovereignty. Thus, the senate was unbalanced in favor of the north.
Fugitive Slave Law
said that fleeing slaves could not testify on their own behalf and they were denied a jury of trial. Northerners who aided slaves trying to escape were subject to fines and jail time. This was the one southern gain from the Compromise of 1850. Effect: Sharp rise in northern anti-slavery feeling
James K. Polk's Presidency
(1845-1849) 4 Goals: 1. Lower tariff 2. Restore the independent treasury 3. and 4. acquisition of california and the settlement of the oregon dispute without violence. British presented Polk with the Oregon Country up to 49. The offer was approved and a reasonable compromise was reached without a shot fire. Goal: Achieve Manifest Destiny!
Robert E. Lee
Confederates
Uncle Tom's Cabin
written by Harriet Beecher. She was determined to awaken the north to the wickedness of slavery by laying bare its terrible inhumanity, esp. the cruel splitting of families. Touching pathos. It made slavery appear almost as evil as it really was. Started the civil war and win it.
Tariff of Abominations
It was hard by the Southerners because it was an extremely high tariff and they felt it discriminated against them. The south was having economic struggles and the tariff was a scapegoat.
Oregon Treaty
1846. nations agreed to settle dispute peacefully by extending Oregon Terrotory-Canadian Border along the 49th parallel.
Dred Scott Case
The Supreme Court ruled that because a slave was private property, he could be taken into any territory and legally held there in slavery. The fifth amendment forbade congress from depriving people of their property without the due process of law. Court went further and said Missouri Compromise was unconscituttional and Congress had no power to ban slaves from territories
Martin Van Buren's Presidency
(1837-1841) Martin Van Buren was Andrew Jackson's choice in the election of 1836. The whigs nominated William Henry Harrison. The whigs did not win because they did not unite behind just one candidate.
Oregon Trail
British refused to leave Columbia river. Americans multiplied when "oregon fever" seized hundreds of restless pioneers. Increasing numbers of ppl traveled over 2,000 miles of Oregon trail and settled south of the Columbia River. Over populated the british.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Stephen A. Douglas wanted to break the north and south's arguments over westward expansion. Proposed the territory of Nebraska to be split into two territories, Nebraska and Kansas. Their status on slavery would be decided by popular sovereignty. Kansas would be a slave state and Nebraska would be a free state. Ran into the porblem of the Missouri Compromise of 1820. Which forbade slavery in the propsed Nebraska territory. Douglas was forced to propse the repealing of the Missouri Compromise. President Pierce fully supported Kansas-Nebraska Bill. Northerners did not like this act because it repealed the Missouri Compromise prohibiting slavery in northern territories! Wrecked the compromise of 1850 and 1820. The democratic Party was shattered by the Kansas-Nebraska Act
Formation of the modern republican party
Free-soilers, non extensnion of slavery, norther manufactures, a protective taruff, for the immigrants, no abridgement of rights; for the northwest; a pacific railroad; for the west; internal improvements; for the farmers - had an appeal to every part of the nation.
Tariff of 1832
Attempted to meet the South's demands. A slightly lower tariff compared to the Tariff of Abominations (1828). It fell short of the South's demands
Causes of the Civil War
Election of Lincoln, States rights v. Union, slavery
Mexican American War
Polk wanted tdo also aquire California/New Mexico region. Polk resorted to an agressive method by sending troops to disputed area. US declared war on Mex. when hostilities arose. Americans captured Mexico City. Santa Anna fled, war ended by Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo
Emancipation Proclamation
political effect: to strengthen the North's moral cause but weaken the Lincoln administration in the Border States and part of the North. Called for the freeing of all slaves although it didn't actually free them. Changed the nature of the war because it removed any change of a negotiated settlement between the north and the south. Caused an outcry to rise from the South who said that Lincoln was trying to stir up slave rebellion. The North now had a much stronger moral cause. It had to preserve the Union and free the slaves. Free slaves that are in rebellion
Election of Lincoln
10 southern states didn't even allow Lincoln to appear on the ballot. South Carolina was happy because now they had a reason to secede.
Creation of the modern democratic party
Before the election of 1824, two parties had formed: National Republicans and Democratic-Republicans. Adams and Clay were for the national republic and Jackson was for the Democratic-Republicans. Andre Jackson beat Adams to win the election of 1828. The majority of his support came from the South, while Adams came from the North
Development of the Whig Party
(National Republican Party died out) Supported the natural harmony of society and the value of community. They favored a renewed national bank, protective tariffs, internal improvements, public schools, and moral reforms, such as the prohibition of liquor and the abolition of slavery
Fort Sumter
Effect: Aroused North to put down South's "rebellion"
John Brown
big abolitionist (anti-slavery), tried to start a slave uprising in Virginia. His plan was to use guns to arm Virginia's slaves. Southern white saw the raid as a final proof of the North's true intentions- to use slave revolts to destroy the South. (became a martyr and was praised) (1859)
Indian Removal Act
Jackson's democrats were committed to western expansion, but such expansion meant confrontation with the Indians who inhabited the land east of the Mississippi. Congress passed the Indian Removal Act. It moved more than 100,000 Indians living east of the Mississippi to reservations west of the Mississippi so white men could expand.The five "civilized" tribes were hardest hit.
William Techumseh Sherman
captured Atlanta and burned down GA. Main purpose was to destroy supplies destined for the Confederate Army and to weaken the morale of the men at the front by waging war on their homes
Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo
(1848) gave Texas to America and yielded the area stretching westward to Oregon and the ocean, including California for $15. Southerners realized that the South would do well not to want all of Mexico because Mexico was anti-slavery. The treaty was opposed by those who wanted all of Mexico and those who wanted none of it.
Worcester v. Georgia
The Cherokee natives are entitled to protection because of the state of GA and their rights
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
The Cherokees of GA made efforts to learn the ways of the whites. They abandoned their seminomadic life and adopted a settled agriculture and a notion of private property. Missionaries opened schools among the Cherokees, and the Indian Sequoyan devised a Cherokee alphabet
LeCompton Constitution
(1857) Kansas had enough people to apply for statehood. Its citizens were going to vote whether to allow slavery or not. In order to keep the free-soilers from creating a free-state, the pro-slavery people created this doc. This doc. stated that the ppl were not allowed to vote for or agains tthe constitution as a whole, rather, they could vote on whether the constitution would be "with or without" slavery. If slavery was voted against, then one of the provisions in the Constitution would protect those who already owned slaves in Kansas. Many free-soilers boycotted boting, so the pro-slaverites voted, approving the Constitution to include slavery
George McClellan
led the Army of the Potomac. Not very successful. Lincoln said he had the "slows." Was a perfectionist and would never take chances. UNION! Over cautious
Specie Circular
smaller wild cat banks in the west began to issue their own currency, But this "wildcat" currency was unreliable because its value was based upon the value of the bank it was issued on. "wildcat" currency became so unreliable that Specie Circle was instituted. A decree requiring all public lands to be purchased with metallic money. This drastic step led to the financial panic of 1837.
Free Blacks join Union Army
After the Emancipation Proclamation and as man power ran lower, blacks were allowed to enlist in the Union army. Towards teh end of the war, the confederacy allowed blacks to enlist, but by then it was too late.
Free-Soil Party
formed by the antislavery men of the north, who didnt trust Cass or Taylor. They supported federal aid for internal improvements. They argued that with slavery, wage labor would wither away and with it, the chance for the American worker to own property
formation of the Know-Nothing Party
The American Party. Formed by Protestants who were alarmed by the increase of immigrants from Ireland Germany. Anti-Catholic and Anti-immigrants
States rights v. Union
Democrats campagned for states rights. Confederate States of America. Many southerners seceeded fearing that the REpublican party would threaten their rights to own slaves
Ulysses S. Grant
became a colonel in the Union Volunteer Army. Led to the victory of Vicksburg
Wilmot Proviso
Mexican war brought about the conflict of slavery between the states. David Wilmot proposed the amendment that stated that the territory from Mexico should remain slave-free. The Wilmot Amemdment never passed Senate becaues the Southern members did not want to be rovved of possible slave states to arise in the future from the land in the Treaty of Guadelupe. Wilmot Proviso- prevented slavery in any territory gained from mexico
South Carolina Exposition and Protest
Made by John C. Calhoun. Published in 1828. It was a pamphlet that denounced the Tariff of Abominations unjust and unconstitutional
black codes
issued in their new territories, they tried to prevent blacks from following them to paradise.
Nat Turner's Rebellion
Nat Turner- (slave rebellion) led an uprising that slaughtered about sixty Virginians, mostly women and children, reprisals were swift and bloody. Made stricter black codes
John Tyler's Presidency
(1841-1845) democrat at heart and contradicted many of the whig party ideas; vetos bank of the U.S.; lowered tariff
Panic of 1837
cause: the rampant speculative craze spread to canals, roads, railroads, and slaves. Jacksonian finance also helped to cause the panic. The panic caused many banks to collapse, commodity prices to drop, and loss of jobs
Force Act
passed by Congress. It authorized hte president to use the army and the navy, if necessary, to collect federal tariff duties.
Gettysburg
Lee 1. Wants to get British/French to help. 2. Negotiate peace with north (let us go in peace.) Outcomes: No british/french suport for the south. No peace negotiation with north. Union Victory! (1863)
Popular Sovereignty
(Stephen Douglas) meant that the Sovereign people of a territory should determine the statues of slavery. It was popular with politicians because it was a comftorable compromise between the abolitionists and the slave holders. Public liked it because it accorded with the democratic tradition of self-determination
Antietam
Union Victory! Needed Maryland to go into the Union. Luncoln, "The South cannot get away for resisisting the federal government, cause all these deaths and not be punished." There must be consequences. Emancipation Proclamation- Free slaves that are in rebellion. British backs away from the south!!

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